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Some plants
releases metabolites and other substances that are not useful for plant growth
into the surrounding environment. Finding of this study reveals that the rood
exudates released by the plant species via root cells may check the growth of
other living organisms specially microorganisms living nearby plant roots.
These microorganisms are able to use same nutrient composition, necessary for
the growth of plant. In this study various plant species with medicinal
potential and algae is observed for symbiotic association. Plant species were
grown in Hydroponics, a soilless culture system. Liquid medium of nutrient
composition is applied for plant growth. In due course, algal growth is
observed inadvertently. Spectrophotometric analysis of algal cell mass growth
is analyzed by spectrophotometric method via. optical density at 640 nm. Plant
species namely, A. viridis and A. hypochondriacus L. observed with insignificant response against
algal cell growth. There was no relationship between the growth of these
selected plant species and algae. Selected plant species and algae were growing
individually by absorbing nutrients present in liquid media without affecting
each other. But in case of species R. sativus L. and S.oleracea altered growth of algal cell mass in non-circulating liquid medium was
significantly observed. Significant resistance against growth of algal mass
was found in T. graceum L., C. olitorius L. and A. viridis, among these species A. viridis showed highest potential to resists algal growth. Environmental conditions and time period were
same for all selected plant species.INTRODUCTION Algae
are vegetal unicellular organisms that can quickly develop and multiply
themselves in the water, especially when the temperature of the water is
warm. Algal blooms are very common in water sources around industrial and
village areas in India. Substances released by industries in water bodies is one
of the main reason for rise in algal mass. Although algae, especially
photosynthetic algae is very important part of ecosystem. Surplus growth of any
living population creates competition or overwhelm other species living in same
area. It is well known fact that presence of algal bloom causes death of various
living organism i.e. fishes, crabs, snails, earthworms etc.  Rise in algal bloom occurs due accumulation
of various chemicals and substances that can support, growth of algal species.
Mainly phosphorus, calcium, nitrogen, potassium rich water bodies are reported
for presence of algal blooms. Sometimes algal blooms are also reported in fresh
water bodies arises due to most favorable environmental conditions. Algal
blooms are responsible to absorb high amount of nutrients and essential
substances present in water bodies that are also essential for growth of other
plant and animals. Hence, sometimes algal blooms are considered as source of
pollution in water bodies.  This is very important to uphold balance in
any kind of ecosystem weather it is terrestrial, forest, marine or fresh water
(aquatic) ecosystem. This study is converging an aim of protecting Biodiversity
of fresh water ecosystem via. averting growth of green algae. In this study,
providentially some kind of anti-algal potential of red calico (Alternanthera spp.), commonly named
as Lal bhaji is recorded. This was not the major aim of the study but the
result was significant, revealing anti-algal strength of red calico plant,
which will discussed in this paper. This is well known fact about medicinal
properties of various known and unknown plant species. Some of the plant
species comprises phytochemicals that can alter the growth of other living
organisms. They may include species of other plant, animals or microorganism.
This is very important to know the fact that plant comprises different living
parts/organs, which means composition of phytochemicals usually varies between
them. Phytochemicals are present in root, stem, leaves, fruit and flower could
be different due to anatomical and physiological behavior of plant organ. Comprehensive
study is required to evaluate unidentified potential of plant phytochemicals
isolated from various plant species.Generally phytochemicals are extracted from
plant parts are followed by analytical approaches. In this study we
are discussing about real life situation, realizing effect of plant growth
associated with other living organism living in surrounding of specific plant
species. When occurrence of two organism together in specific area within same
environmental condition is termed as Symbiotic relationship, this could be
either temporarily or for a longer period depends upon various factors such as
nutrient availability and its type, physiology of an organism, potential of
adaptation, genetic composition etc.. Plant cell secrets various essential and
non essential substances produced by their metabolic activities. Most of them
are used for plant growth, via. development of leaf, shoot, root, flower, fruit
and also for protection from other organisms like bacteria, fungi and viruses.
Some substances, that are not useful of plant growth is released into the
surrounding environment through roots commonly known as root exudates. Those
compounds may include various sugars, proteins, amino acids, also various
organic and inorganic substances. In case of soil based cultivation root
exudates may be responsible to establish artificial rhizosphere (Dundek et. al., 2011). These photochemical are
stored in inner compound of plant cell surface but exported to the outer
environment due to various reasons like – 1.      
Excess secretion of substances
resulting osmosis and diffusion. 2.      
In exchange with other
substances3.      
Death and replacement of older
cells4.      
Injuries occurred due to
external factors like thermal, external forces etc.  This is associated
study of various plant species with Hydroponic culture system. This method is based
on soilless cultivation of plant species. Algae requires high amount of water
or moist area to survive. Some of the local plant varieties has been selected
to perform experiment. This could be meant for obtaining optimum growth as well
as supporting production of phytochemicals. Roots are the plant parts, which
remains in continuous touch with water or liquid nutrient supply. In this
condition, if any substance is released by the root to the surrounding liquid
medium could show effect on the growth of fresh water green algae.  Material
and Method:   Fig: Showing Hydroponical setup for the
cultivation of selected plant species.

Solid surface for
holding plant body

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Outer covering – Transparent

Roots

Shoot

Algal mass

                 

a.      
Hydroponical setup Hydroponical setup
was considered to accomplish research study. A complete soilless plant
cultivation method, liquid medium was used to grow selected plant species
(Table 1). Outer surface of the hydroponical system was prepared through
transparent material which could helpful to observe root growth and also
morphological changes could be visible. Solid surface was used to inoculate
seed and support for plant body after seed germination. Solid surface was
prepared through sterilized foam piece holding by metal net.  b.       Liquid Nutrient
medium  Liquid nutrient medium comprised of various micro
and macro elements in ionic form i.e. NO3?, NH4+,
HPO42-, H2PO4-, K+,
Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, BO33-,
Cl-, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn2+,
MoO4-, Zn2+ etc. These are basic elements
essential for plant growth and development of different parts of plant (Jones,
2005). These inorganic substances are naturally present in soil. Therefore,
they are selected for artificially plant cultivating method. These elements may
also support growth of some other living organisms such as bacteria, fungi and
algae etc. This may arise due to loss of hygienic environment under solid
surface surrounding root.  c.       
Meteorological factors Many climatic
factors like light, temperature, humidity etc. play an important role to
support plant growth as well as other living organism to establish symbiotic
relationship. In symbiotic relationship two different living organism exhibit
same climatic factors to accomplish their life span. In this study DL (Dark and
Light) period was maintained in ratio of 12:12. Artificial light was provided
through fluorescent tubes of 1000 Lux or below. Temperature was maintained
around 29 – 34 °C via. Programmable thermostat. Ideal humidity was maintained
above 95 %. All these conditions were established under indoor environment.  Some of the local
vegetable plant varieties have been selected for obtaining optimum growth. List
of selected plant (Table 1). Effect of phytochemicals released by roots on
algal growth is studied. This could be difficult to study in soil cultivated plant
because roots are completely embedded inside soil surface. Hence transparent
mechanical setup is required to observe root growth and it’s phytochemical on
algal growth. Table
1: List of selected plant species for the experiment 

Common
name (Hindi/English)

Scientific
name

Family

Palak/Spinach

Spinacia oleracea

Amaranthaceae

Chauleyi, rajgira/ Spiny pigweed
 
 

Amaranthus viridis.

Amaranthaceae

Lal bhaji/ Red calico plant

Amaranthus tricolor

Amaranthaceae

Methi / Fenugreek

Trigonellafoenum graceum L.

Fabacecae

ChechBhaji / Jute

Chorchorus olitorius L.

Tiliaceae

Kheda bhaji

Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.

Amaranthaceae

Muli /Radish

Raphanus sativus L.

Brassicaceae

  Identification of algae was done by using microscopic analysis based on
morphological and habitat characteristics such as color, filament, smell and occurrence
etc. It was recognized as fresh water green algae.  Measurement of algal growth rate was done by
spectrophotometric analysis (Table 2).  Dry weight method Dry weight method
was used to detect growth rate of algal biomass in 100 ml after 10 days. Algal
biomass was extracted through whatman filter paper followed by drying in oven
at 70 °C for 1 hr. Final dry weight was measured in digital weighing balance to
compare total algal mass in each experimental setup of different plant species.
Plant species with high anti-algal potential would be measured with low dry
weight on the contrary those plant species having no relationship with algal
growth would be measured with higher dry weight (Table 3). 

 

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