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Question
1:

v  

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v Definition
of “exceptional children” and who that includes

Who
are Exceptional Children? Children who don’t benefit from the general
education and require special ed. 
These children are different from the average population or
average range of functioning.
Mental
characteristics
Sensory
abilities
Comm.
abilities
Behavior
and emotional development
Physical
characteristics

 

v Developmental
delay, impairment, disability, handicap, and at-risk definitions

Disability

The
disability limits the ability to act
Limitations
imposed on an individual (physical, cognitive, sensory, emotional,
learning difficulties)

Handicap

A
problem a person experiences when interacting with the environment
Impact
of the disability  (social
marginalization, discrimination due to perceptions)
Incapacity
to perform as other children do bc of some impairment
Not
all children with disabilities are handicap

Impairment

The
lost or reduced function of a body part or organ

Developmental
delay

Delay
of development in one or more developmental areas

At-Risk

Children
who have a greater chance of developing a disability

v The
difficulties in very precisely estimating the number of students with
exceptionalities—  How many exceptional
children are there?

Different
criteria used for identification
Preventive
services
Imprecise
nature of assessment
The
child may be eligible at one point in time and not eligible at another
About
1 in 6 students with disabilities ages 6-13 are “misclassified”
and no longer receiving special education services 2 years later (SRI
International, 2005)
Federal
law does not mandate special education for children who are gifted and
talented.

v Categories
of disabilities under IDEA

13
categories of disability

Autism
Deaf-blindness
Developmental
delay
Emotional
disturbance
Hearing
impairments including deafness
Intellectual
disability
Multiple
disabilities
Orthopedic
disabilities
Other
health impairments
Specific
learning disabilities
Speech
or language impairments
Traumatic
brain injury
Visual
impairments including blindness

 

Question
2:

 ¨The words
“impairment,” “disability,” and “handicap,” are often used
interchangeably. 

¨They have very different meanings, however. 

¨ The differences in meaning are important for understanding the
effects of neurological injury on development.

¨Disability: any restriction or lack (resulting from an
impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range
considered normal for a human being.

Handicap:  a disadvantage for a given individual that
limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role that is normal

As traditionally used: –

impairment refers to a problem
with a structure or organ of the body;

disability is a functional
limitation with regard to a particular activity; and

 handicap refers to a disadvantage in filling a role in life relative
to a peer group.

People first language:

in choosing
words about people with disabilities, the guiding principle is to refer to the
person first, not the disability. In place of saying “the disabled,” it is
preferable to say “people with disabilities.” This way, the emphasis is placed
on the person, not the disability. The ‘People First’ concept favors having,
rather than being, the disability. Disability should not be the primary,
defining characteristic of an individual – it is one aspect of the whole
person.

                         examples
of language that devalues and marginalizes people with disabilities:

 

wheelchair-bound;
quadriplegic; crazy/nuts/lunatics; stricken with; autistic; special person; crippled/a
cripple; afflicted with; retards; deaf and dumb; suffers or suffering from; victim
of; the mentally ill; the handicapped; the disabled; the retarded 

 

The pros and cons of using labels in
education

o   Advantages

–       Labels
serves as a means of funding and administering ed. Programs

–       Allows
professionals to communicate efficiently in a meaningful fashion

–       Labels
establish an individual’s eligibility for services

–       Heighten the
visibility of the unique needs of persons with disabilities

o   Disadvantages

–      
Labels can be stigmatizing and may lead to
stereotyping

–      
Has the potential of focusing attention on
limitations and what a person cannot do instead of on the individuals
capabilities and strengths

–      
Can sometimes be used as an excuse or a
reason for delivering ineffective instruction

–      
Labels contribute to diminished self-concept,
lower expectations, and poor self-esteem

–      
Labels are typically inadequate for
instructional purposes

 

 

Question
3:

“Mental retardation” à
Intellectual Development Disorder

 

·      General
intellectual functioning

o   The
intelligence quotient (IQ) obtained by assessment with one or more individually
administered intelligence tests that have been standardized

o   4 areas of
functioning: verbal, non-verbal, working memory and processing speed

·      Adaptive
functioning

o   How
effectively individuals cope with common life demands and how well they meet
the standards of personal independence expected of someone of their particular
age group, sociocultural background, and common setting

 

DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria

·      Deficits in
general intellectual abilities

o   In practical
terms this means individuals with IQs less than 70 (2 SDs below average)

o   However,
subject to interpretation within the margin of error, which includes
individuals with IQs between 65 and 75, and in cases where other factors
influence the measured score

·      Impairment
of adaptive functioning (3 domains)

o   Conceptual: competence in memory, language,
reading, writing, math, reasoning; acquisition of practical knowledge; problem
solving; and judgment in novel situations

§  Does the
individual struggle academically?

o   Social: awareness of others’ thoughts,
feelings, and experiences; empathy; interpersonal communication skills;
friendship abilities; and social judgment

§  Do they have
difficulties interacting with others?

o   Practical: learning and self-management
across life settings, including personal care, job responsibilities, money
management, recreation, self-management of behavior, and school and work task
organization

§  To what
degree can they live on their own?

·      Onset before
age 18

 

Four Severity Specifiers

·      Mild: generally independent and only
slightly impaired compared to peers

·      Moderate: can achieve some independence
after training, but will still require some support. Intellectual ability is
somewhat limited compared to peers and at adulthood their academic ability is
comparable to an elementary student.

·      Severe: requires daily support and
should be supervised at all times. Limited cognitive ability; has difficulty
with written language and numbers. Very simple language use.

·      Profound: dependent on others for all
aspects of daily life. Little to no symbolic language. May understand simple words
or gestures.

 

Specific Learning Disorders

·      Difficulty
in any of the following:

o   Reading word
identification

§  Dyslexia

o   Reading
comprehension

Spelling

o   Written
expression

o   Calculation

§  Dyscalculia

o   Mathematical
reasoning

·      Interface
with academic performance and are below those expected for than individual
(less than 1.5 SD inn an academic domain)

·      Difficulties
begin during school age (less than 18)

·      Not
otherwise accounted for by other disorders

 

Three Severity Specifiers

·      Mild: some difficulty within a
couple academic domains, but may function well with mild accommodations

·      Moderate: marked difficulty in one or
two domains and is unlikely to function well without significant accommodations

·      Severe: severe difficulties across
multiple academic domains that unlikely to be compensated for without intensive
and specialized training. Requires assistance.

 

Common Comorbid Conditions with Intellectual
Disability

·      ADHD

·      Mood
disorders

·      Anxiety
disorders

·      Autism
spectrum disorder

·      Stereotypic
movement disorder

·      Mental
disorders due to a general medical condition

 

Biological Factors

·      Etiology of
intellectual disability can be determined in a third of individuals seen in
clinical settings

·      Genetics

o   Highly
heritable

o   Also caused
by de novo mutations

o   There are
more than 750 known genetic syndromes associated with mental retardations

o   E.g.,
Tay-Sachs disease, tuberous sclerosis, translocation Down syndrome, fragile X
syndrome, Prader-Willli syndrome, William’s syndrome, etc.

·      Current
estimates are that the heritability is between 30-80% for developmental
disorders

 

Environmental Factors

·      Pregnancy
and in utero development

o   Prenatal
damage due to toxins (e.g., maternal alcohol consumption or drug abuse)

o   Fetal
malnutrition, viral and other infections, and trauma

·      Problems
during childbirth

o   Hypoxia

o   Premature
birth

·      Early
childhood illness/accidents

o   Meningitis,
whooping cough, measles, etc.

o   Head injury
or loss of oxygen

o   Lead
exposure

·      Fetal
alcohol syndrome is the most common of preventable causes

 

Question
7 :

 

Defining Emotional
or Behavioral Disorders

Federal
definition:
“a condition
exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period
of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s
educational performance”
Inability to
learn not explained by other factors
Inability to
have interpersonal peer relationships
Inappropriate
behavior or feelings under normal circumstances
Pervasive
mood of depression or unhappiness
Tendency to
develop physical symptoms or fears

 

Defining Emotional
or Behavioral Disorders

Disturbed vs.
disturbing behavior
Social
maladjustment
Dimensions
common to most definitions of emotional and behavioral disorders:
Frequency
(rate) of occurrence
Intensity
(severity) of behavior
Duration
(length of time) of behavior
Age-appropriateness
of the behavior

 

Classification of
Individuals with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

Clinically
derived classification systems
The
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition,
Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR ) provides criteria
Diagnosis
involves observation of behavior over time and across different settings
Statistically
derived classification systems
Involves
categories of disordered behaviors
Externalizing
behaviors
Internalizing
behaviors

Adults with
Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

Section 504
of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Postsecondary
education
Employment
training

 

 

Prevalence of
Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

The U.S.
Department of Education (2007) reports that 472,384 students ages 6-21
received special education services for an emotional disturbance during
the 2005-2006 school year
The most
underidentified disability category

 

Suspected Etiologies
of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

Biological
risk factors
Genetic
influence: autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive
disorder, Tourette’s syndrome, depression
Biological
factors: infection, lead poisoning, toxin exposure
Psychosocial
(environmental) risk factors
Parental
discord, poverty, neglect, abuse, rejection, poor health care, poor
nutrition

 

 

Internalizing
disorders

·     
Many internalizing disorders of childhood are
variants of adult disorders

·     
Some behaviors are normal at one age,
disorders at another 

·     
There are differences in expression of
underlying distress

·     
Kids may have difficulty articulating their
internal experiences

·     
Problems in assessment come from differences
between child/adult reports

·     
Low or absent correlation between children’s
adults’ report

 

·       

 

DSM Internalizing
Disorders

·     
Childhood anxiety disorders

·     
Separation Anxiety Disorder 

·     
Internalizing disorders specific to childhood 

·     
Disorders of feeding 

·     
Disorders of elimination 

·     
Tic Disorders 

·     
Attachment disorders 

Externalizing
problems is an issue that puts adolescents in danger in some cases.
Adolescent’s personality and social environment lead to risk-taking behaviors.
With externalization comes tolerance of deviance and sometime highly liberal
views. This can be a chain of action leading from one thing to another, or
simply,  problem clusters. There is a
theory called the social control theory. This theory explains individuals who
do not have strong bonds to societal institutions like family, work, or school.
These adolescents are likely to deviate and behave unconventionally. The social
control theory explains why behavior problems are far more prevalent among
poor, inner-city, minority youths.

            Internalizing problems is an issue I
find more pressing than externalization, specifically, negative emotion.
Adolescents high in negative emotionality are more likely to suffer from
depression, anxiety, and other symptoms of distress. Internalizing disorders
are also more common among those who are anhedonia or low in positive
emotionality.

 

 

Question
5:

 

A persistent pattern of inattention
and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and
severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of
development

·      Symptoms
must be present for at least six months.

·      Some
symptoms must be initially displayed before age seven.

·      The
impairment is exhibited in multiple settings.

·      Disorder
impairs performance in social, academic, or occupational areas.

·      Symptoms
persist to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with the individual’s
developmental level.

·      Predominantly
hyperactive/impulsive

·      Predominantly
inattentive

·      Combined
(both hyperactive/impulsive and inattention

·      Doesn’t
pay attention to details – careless mistakes

·      Has
trouble keeping mind on work or play

·      Does
not seem to listen to what is being said to him/her

·      Does
not follow through

·      Fails
to complete school work, chores, tasks

·      Has
trouble organizing activities

·      Avoid
or dislikes things that take effort

·      Loses
things (school work, books, toys, etc.)

·      Is
easily distracted by sights/sounds

·      Is
forgetful

·      ructions

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