Q: How much of the world’s population is Christian? Where is
Christianity the dominant religious tradition?
A: 1/3. Americas, Europe, and Australia. With significant
followings in Asia and Africa.
Q: Define Christianity’s two core doctrines.
A: Christianity’s two core doctrines are the Incarnation,
which asserts Christ is both fully divine and fully human, and the Trinity,
which says God is of three Persons- Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
Q: What are the literal and symbolic meanings of the Greek
A: Each letter of which begins a word of the phrase
“Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior.”
Q: What are the primary sources of information about the
life of Jesus?
A: The New Testament Gospels such as Matthew, Mark, Luke,
and John are the primary sources of information about the life of Jesus.
Q: Briefly describe the political situation in Palestine
during Jesus’ lifetime.
A: Palestine was conquered by Romans in 63 BC. When Jesus
was young, most of Palestine, came under direct control of Roman Emperor,
Q: Name and briefly describe the varieties of Judaism at the
time of Jesus, including their responses to Roman rule.
A: Sadducees= wealthy aristocrats who controlled Jerusalem
Temple were conservative and friendly w rulers.
Essenes= fled from trouble lading lives of discipline and
purity in desert communities.
Pharisees= moderate, obeying commandments of Judaism and developing
Zealots= believed the only way to achieve Jewish
independence was through armed rebellion.
Q: Explain the meaning of apocalyptism.
A: Apocalypticism is when the world had come under the
control of evil forces.
Q: Who was John the Baptist, and how was he relevant in
A: Cousin of Jesus. preached coming of God. Baptized Jesus.
Q: What are parables? Name two well-known.
A: Parables are stories cast in language and settings
familiar to his listeners but proclaiming radical lessons intended to disrupt
conventional ways of thinking. Two well-known parables are the Good Samaritan
and the Prodigal Son.
Q: To what was Jesus likely referring when he spoke of the
Kingdom of God?
A: God’s intervention in history to right the wrongs in the
Q: What is Jesus’ radical commandment on love?
A: Loving one’s enemies.
Q: Why was Jesus crucified?
A: Jesus was crucified because of the radical nature of his
teachings and his ministry, and the agitated crows of followers he attracted
got Jesus in trouble with the authorities. Pontius Pilate ordered his
Q: What does the term gospel mean?
A: Good news.
Q: What is the primary focus of the Gospel of Matthew?
A: The primary focus of the Gospel of Matthew was obedience
to the Law. It presents Jesus as the new Moses who reveals the fulfillment of
God’s Law through spiritual obedience.
Q: In what ways does the Gospel of Luke portray Jesus as
reaching out to a diversity of people?
A: This Gospel gives women more attention, and many of its
parables characterize outcasts in the favorable light. Jesus reaches out to
people of all segments of life.
Q: What is the doctrine of the Incarnation?
A: The Incarnation identifies Christ as the Word, who from
the beginning was with God and was God active in the creation of the world.
Q: What is the focal point of the Gospel of John?
A: The Incarnation is the focal point of the Gospel of John.
Q: According to the first epistle to the Corinthians, what
is Paul’s Gospel message?
A: He refers specifically to the Gospel or “Good
Q: What does Paul emphasize about salvation?
A: Power of Christ’s Crucifixion and Resurrection is the
source of salvation.
Q: What does Paul say about the second coming?
A: Paul emphasizes that salvation comes from God’s grace-
God’s presence freely given.
Q: What is the origin of the term creed?
Q: How does the Gospel of John emphasize both Jesus’
divinity and humanity?
A: Apostles’ Creed refers to each of the three Persons in
Q: What is Christ called in the first chapter of John’s
A: Word called “logos”.
Q: What two creeds were formulated by the year 325?
A: The Nicene Creed and the Apostles’ Creed were formulated
by the year 325.
Q: Historically speaking, what was the most critical point
established at the Council of Nicea?
A: Jesus, the Son, and God the Father are “one in
Being”. God became flesh in the person of Jesus but in no way, is Jesus a
lesser being. He is the same being.
Q: What is the doctrine of the Trinity?
A: The doctrine of the Trinity is the centerpiece of
Christina belief and theology. By definition, the Christian God is a triune
God, three Persons- in one Godhead.
Q: What did Paul say the Church is meant to be?
A: A unified body of people.
Q: What are heresies?
A: Heresies are opinions or doctrines at variance with an
Q: Describe how Paul came to be an Apostle of Christ.
A: While traveling on a road to Damascus, Paul experienced
the risen Christ.
Q: What was decided at the Council of Jerusalem?
A: The apostles and elders decided Gentile Christians were
virtually free from the requirements of the Jewish Law. It distinguished the
Christian Church from its parents, Judaism.
Q: Why did the early Christians settle on Sunday as their
primary day of worship?
A: To commemorate Christ’s Resurrection and to distinguish
the Church from Judaism.
Q: What were the central rituals of the early Church?
A: Eucharist and Baptism.
Q: What were the three distinct offices in the Church by the
early second century? Briefly describe the role of the bishop in the early
A: The three distinct offices in the Church were bishops,
presbyters, and deacons. Bishops were seen as successors to Jesus’s Apostles
and therefore were highly esteemed. Each bishop was the overseer of his church,
and the bishop performed the chief task of administering the Eucharist. Pope is
considered the direct successor of St. Peter.
Q: Why did worship on behalf of the Roman emperor bring
Christians into conflict with the empire?
A: Act of disloyalty against Roman state.
Q: Who was Augustine, and what great theological masterpiece
did he write after the fall of Rome?
A: Augustine was the Bishop Augustine of Hippo. He wrote The
City of God where he argues that all governments and nations are corrupt and
have fallen to sin.
Q: What is the meaning of the Greek word from which we get
the word “Catholic”?
Q: Identify elements leading to schism in Church that
divided the eastern and western parts of Roman Empire.
A: The distance between Constantinople and Rome caused
communication difficulties, the Eastern Church used Greek, and the Church in
Rome used Latin. There was also a gradual loss of political unity when the
western part of the Roman Empire fell, and the eastern part survived in the
form of the Byzantine Empire. Finally, there was the Eastern Christians’
refusal to accept the authority of the pope in Rome.
Q: What significant event occurred in the year 1054?
A: Pope Leo IX excommunicated the leader of the Greek
Church, the patriarch of Constantinople, who in turn excommunicated the pope.
Q: Identify some achievements of Catholicism in the Middle
A: 1) fortified institution with spiritual authority
2) great cathedrals constructed
3) Monasticism reached a new height
4) Established communities of monks and nuns were reformed
5) creation of Dominicans and Franciscans
Q: Where, and in what century, did the Protestant
Reformation take place?
A: 16th century England mainly through Germany, Switzerland,
Q: What did Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses protest against?
A: He protested against the selling of indulgences.
Q: What did King Henry VIII play in the Protestant
A: Broke with the Church and declared himself head of the
Church of England.
Q: Other than the establishment of Protestantism, what were
two major effects of the Protestant Reformation?
A: Led up to the Catholic Reformation and the Thirty Years’
Q: What is one distinctive characteristics of Roman
A: Its reliance on both the Bible and Tradition as the means
of handing on God’s revelation of Christ.
Q: Identify the seven sacraments of Catholicism and Eastern
A: 1) Baptism, 2) Confirmation, 3) Eucharist, 4) Holy
Orders, 5) Matrimony, 6) Anointing of the Sick,
Q: When was the Second Vatican Council held, and what was in
A: The Second Vatican Council was held from 1962 to 1965.
Its general aims were to reflect on Church teaching so the Church would respond
appropriately to the needs of the modern world, and to promote Christian unity.
Q: Name a distinctive practice of Eastern Orthodoxy and
identify the tradition’s theological focal point.
A: Great emphasis on icons and early Christian Saints.
Incarnation encourages a mystical union with God through faith in Jesus Christ.
Q: What challenges does Eastern Orthodoxy face as a result
of recent changes in the world and in the Church?
A: Revitalize traditions and challenge traditional ways.
Breakup of SU. Membership makeup is changing. Membership of other groups.
Q: What has Protestantism historically tended to protest
A: Protested against anything that stood in the way of the
Christian’s relationship with God through Christ.
Q: What are the four main branches of Protestantism?
A: Lutheran, Calvinist, Baptist, and Anglican.
Q: What is ecumenism?
A: Ecumenism is the promotion of worldwide Christian unity.