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January, 26th 2018

 

South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences
 
Mr. Nevil Paul
Matriculation No.10061925
Msc, SEEM
1st Semester
[email protected]
 
 

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CHallenges OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN INDIA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

             TABLE OF CONTENTS

I.                                                                                                                            INTRODUCTION..……………………………………………………………………………..1

II.                                                                                                                         HOW GREEN ARE ELECTRIC VEHICLES?………………………………………………………………..2

III.                                                                                                                      PENETRATION OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN INDIA……………………………………..2

IV.                                                                                                                      TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING EV IMPLEMENTATION…………………..3

A.    Battery…..……….……………………………………………………………………….………..3

B.     Charging Stations……….…………………………………………………….……………………4

C.     Servicing…………………………………………………………………………..…………….…4

D.    Powering of Electric Vehicles..…………..………………………………………………………..5

V.                                                                                                                         FUTURE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES………………………………………………………….6

VI.                                                                                                                      CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………………….…6

VII.                                                                                                                   BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………………………7

VIII.                                                                                                                STATUATORY DECLARATION………………………………………………………………8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Challenges of Electric Vehicles in India

                        

                                                                         Nevil Paul

 

                                           Systems Engineering and Engineering Management

 

                                      Technical Publications and Presentations

 

                                  South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences, SOEST

 

                                        [email protected]

 

 

Abstract—Air pollution caused by the emission of toxic gases from gasoline driven vehicles is one of the major problem of the modern world. This causes climate change and the entire world is thinking seriously about this issue, which is a threat to our planet Earth. India is one among the most polluted countries in the entire world.  Most of the main-stream cities in India are polluted and gasoline driven vehicles are one of the major sources of pollution. To address this problem, the Indian government has initiated a plan to ensure all the vehicles sold in India by 2030 are electrically driven. The idea is to make India an Electric Vehicle nation by 2030. Electric Vehicles have numerous advantages over conventional internal combustion engine driven vehicles; the major advantage is they do not emit toxic gases into the atmosphere. Hence, they are considered to be more environment-friendly. The initiative to make India an Electric Vehicle nation will reduce the pollution and save costs of using energy and ensure there is a better health for the people living in the society. But, there are various challenges for the implementation of Electric Vehicles in large scale such as  

 

 

 

availability of the  charging stations, reliable supply of electricity, servicing of electric vehicles and limitations among the available battery technology. This paper addresses the above mentioned technological challenges and provides possible solutions to overcome it.

 

Key words—India an Electric Vehicle nation, battery technology, charging stations, climate change.

 

I. INTRODUCTION

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Today, one of the major problems, faced by the entire world is the increased threat of global warming which leads to climate change and it is due to the fact that we highly depend on fossil fuels for our daily needs in the field of transportation, power generation, etc. As a result, these resources are depleting at a faster rate; the climate is changing rapidly and giving us a strong signal to act now. Passenger cars are one of the primary sources of pollution in India. Various studies have proved that one of the technological solutions to this problem is to replace the conventional Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) with

 

electric vehicles (EVs), an initiative of going green to save the planet Earth. It is because EVs do not emit any gases, which are harmful to the environment and living beings.

 

To address this increased threat of global warming, the Government of India (GOI) has taken a significant initiative to make India an EV nation by 2030. Their aim is to sell only electric vehicles in India by 2030. So, this report focuses on discussing the challenges to implement EVs in India. We will discuss how green are EVs in chapter II, followed by EV penetration rate in India in the chapter III. The technological factors affecting EV implementation will be discussed in chapter IV and in chapter V we will focus on the future of EVs in India and followed by a conclusion in chapter VI.

II. HOW GREEN ARE ELECTRIC VEHICLES?

Batteries, Controller and Motor (Figure 1) are considered as the heart of an EV. Figure 1 shows that EV works on the principle of an electric current. The controller takes power from the battery and

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delivers it to the motor. The motor in turn rotates the transmission, which drives the wheel 1.

Fig 1: Heart of an EV 11

 

Since the working of EV is simple with few moving parts compared to an ICEV and without using any gasoline or causing emissions, EVs are more efficient and greener compared to ICEVs provided that the electricity to charge the batteries is generated from cleaner sources like wind, solar, hydro, etc. It makes the EVs an easy and obvious choice for the entire world, which is fighting against pollution.

                

III. PENETRATION OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN INDIA

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In today’s world, EVs tend to be a new concept since we live in the era of ICEV. But EVs were first introduced in 1830 2 and today we experience breakthrough of this technology to replace the ICEVs. It is essential to electrify the power drive system of automobiles, which is a major source of air pollution in the country and to achieve a greener transportation. Hence, studies have revealed that EV is a natural option for India because of the following 3.

The level of the pollution caused by the emission of vehicles in mainstream cities.
Driving habits of the people in the cities, since many people use their vehicle in a day which is well within the range of an EV.
Current development in EV technology.
Resource potential that the country has in different technology conditions (example: generation of electricity from solar, wind or hydro).
The increasing threat of climate change.

Still, EV market has not grown significantly in India.

 

The trend of EVs in India is still in the early stage of development. There are few two/three-wheeler manufacturers of electric vehicles in India as shown in Table 1, but when it comes to electric vehicles, Mahindra Electric is the only manufacturer 4. Its electric car model has a range of 140km per charge 5.

 

Table 1: EV Manufacturers in India 4

 

S.No

Organisation

Products

1

Hero Electric

EV-2 Wheelers

2

Mahindra Reva

EV-4 Wheelers

3

Electrotherm

EV-2 Wheelers

4

Avon Cycles

EV-2 Wheelers

5

Ampere Vehicles Private Ltd

EV-2/3 Wheelers

6

Lohia Auto Industries

EV-2/3 Wheelers

7

Ajanta Manufacturing Ltd

EV-2 Wheelers

8

Sehgal Elmoto Ltd

EV-2 Wheelers

9

Fusion Power System

EV-Components

10

Tunwal Electronics

EV-2 Wheelers/
Components

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Ather Energy

EV-2 Wheelers

 

 

The lack of Automobile Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) means the lack of competitors to produce affordable and technologically advanced EVs; hence, EV penetration is relatively low in India. In the financial year 2015, a total of 22,000 EVs were sold compared to 27,00,000 ICEVs 5. Lack of EV manufacturers and less investment in the field of Research and Development (R) with less technological advancement makes penetration rate of EVs relatively low in comparison to ICEVs.

 

IV. TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING EV IMPLEMENTATION

A.     Battery

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Batteries are the primary power source for EVs. Various batteries such as Lithium-Ion (Li-ion), Lead-Acid, Lithium-polymer (Li-polymer), Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH), etc. have been developed till now. But comparison as shown in figure 2 illustrates that no battery has taken a dominant position in terms of features. This is due to the drawback of each battery technology has in terms of its features. Developing a battery which is good in terms of all the features as shown in figure 2 is one of the leading challenges for implementation of EVs in large scale 6.

Fig 2: Comparison of various features of a battery 6

 

The major drawback of the battery system is the charging time involved and the range covered per charge. Initially, the battery swapping model 7 can be considered to solve the problem of charging duration in between the stations. However, there is a need to improve the battery technology, which is the main component of EVs, and, unless it is equal to ICEVs in terms of distance covered in a single charge; people will be hesitant to switch to EVs. Cheaper and long range batteries need to be developed through effective R and this can be achieved by Automobile OEMs in co-operation with funding from the Government of India.

B.     Charging Stations

An increase in the EVs will result in the requirement of more charging stations in the country. There are various technologies under development, concerning the charging of EVs, ranging from plugin to wireless charging. But the challenge will be to accommodate the EVs at the same time in the charging station. To address this situation, a charging station selection server model (CSS, Fig.3) can be developed.

Fig 3: CSS Algorithm 8

 

The server communicates with the EVs by locating the vehicle location and its range available and proposes the readily or fastest accessible charging stations in the region 8. So, there is a need for more smart charging stations that can be achieved efficiently by partnering with private investors by promoting the EVs in the future.

C.     Servicing

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Instant technical support for servicing of the vehicles is also an issue to be addressed. There are very few mechanics who can service the EVs during a breakdown, considering the fact that these EVs are new on the market and the electric circuits in the motor of an EV are extremely dangerous since, they will be running at more than three times of 220V in mains, which poses a serious threat to life if he is inexperienced in handling these situations. Hence, it will take time for people to gain the confidence to buy EVs. The Institute of Motor Industry (IMI) will start a new campaign to ensure that all the mechanics are well-trained to work on electric motors 9.

D.    Powering of Electric Vehicles

Compared to ICEVs, EVs run only on electric power and hence they are environment-friendly, but their primary challenge is the reliability of energy supply within the country. Figure 4 shows that 66% of the electricity in India is generated from fossil fuels. GOI has to develop strategies to ensure that there is a reliable supply of electricity to run these electric vehicles and it is generated from the sources like wind, solar, hydro etc. which does not pollute the environment. If the electricity is not generated from clean sources, it will negate the replacement of ICEVs with EVs.

 

Fig 4: Breakup of India’s Power generation capacity 12

 

But the generation of electricity through renewables has its own drawbacks; it is an unsteady generation of electricity. The idea of smart grids, as an intelligent electricity distribution system can be considered. In this electricity distribution system the grids are supplied by a wide range of energy resources 10.

 

For easy understanding, an example of the smart grid set up by TERI in Haryana, India is given below. This smart grid transports energy from the below mentioned sources 10.

A 10.5kWP capacity of solar photovoltaic system.
A 2kWP capacity of solar photovoltaic system.
A 1kWP capacity of thin film based solar photovoltaic system.
A 3.3kWP capacity of wind turbine generator.
A 100kW capacity of biomass gasifier system.

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A battery pack of 48V, 600Ah for energy storage.
Diesel generator sets/utility grid.

 

V. FUTURE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Apart from the above discussed, there are many other factors, affecting EV-implementation. Figure 5 shows the critical system players and significant trends of EV- implementation in India.

 

Fig 5: The Electric Vehicle Ecosystem 10

 

Even though, EV-implementation will decrease the pollution level, the technological factors and unreliable supply of electricity in the country are the major problems, which are hindering the growth of the EV market. Another issue to be considered is the price of EVs because they are expensive compared to ICEVs. Government of India has to take adequate measures to set up various policies and funding for R&D projects to develop cheap and affordable EVs. It is essential to communicate the advantages of EVs to convince customers. The vision of EVs shall be elucidated to the people of India by various incentives and awareness programs that persuade people to buy EVs instead of ICEVs. But the technological advancements in the field of EVs will direct the future and replacement of ICEVs with EVs.

 

VI. CONCLUSION

 

The vision of the Indian government, to make India an EV nation by 2030 is a good initiative to address the pollution problem. Through this study, the major implementation challenges of EVs were discussed. EVs are a better means of transportation compared to ICEVs since they are more environment-friendly and reduce pollution. However, due to various external factors, the EV market has not grown significantly in India.

 

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The lack of automobile manufacturers in India is the major reason for less EV penetration rate; this can be addressed by developing new policies which legally prohibit the manufacturing of ICEVs. By this, manufacturers can focus on investing in EVs and can develop cheap and affordable cars. Long range batteries in terms of distance covered in a single charge is one of the biggest concerns in EV field. Through effective R&D, it is important to solve the battery-related drawbacks if the EV has to be implemented on a large scale. Charging stations, servicing, and reliable source of electricity are some of the important technological factors that need to be resolved. The future of EV looks promising if the above-mentioned problems are resolved in an effective way.

 

To make India an EV nation, more weight should be laid on the sales of EVs, which can be achieved only by technological innovation in this field. It took over a decade for the complete transformation of ICEV from where it started and till date, there are continuous developments in the field of ICEV. So innovation is a continuous improvement process and technological innovations in EV field will direct its future. Implementation of EVs in large scale will solve some of the major problems like, reduces dependency on oil, decreases the pollution level, generates more electricity from renewable energy resources etc. So, people of India and the country as a whole, have the potential to achieve this technological breakthrough transformation from ICEVs to EVs and fight against pollution which is a great threat to Earth and mankind.

 

VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1 R. Argueta, “A Technical Research Report- The Electric Vehicle,” University of California, Santa Barbara College of Engineering, March 2010.

 

2 K.V.Muralidhar Sharma, Manoj R Kulkarni, Veeredra G.P., Karthik N “Trends and Challenges in Electric Vehicles,” IJIRSET, vol. 5, no. 5, May 2016.

 

3 USAID, “Growth of an Electric Vehicle Industry in India,”Indian Zero Emission Transportation, Project

Contract No.LAG-00-98-00006-00, April 1999.

 

4 Akshay Ahuja &  Reji Kumar Pillai, “Electric Vehicles: A Sustainable Solution to Air Pollution in Delhi,” International Smart Grid Forum, December 2015.

 

5 A. Saksena, “India is FInally moving towards an Electric Car Future,” India Times, 15 September 2017. Online. Available: www.indiatimes.com/news/india/india-is-finally-moving-towards-an-electric-car-future-329811.html.

 

6 Qianqian Zhang, Cunjin Li & Yuqing Wu “Analysis of Research and Development Trend of the Battery Technology in Electric Vehicle with the Perspective of Patent,” in The 8th International Conference on Applied Energy- ICAE2016, 2016.

 

7 Mushfiqur R Sarker, Hvroje Pandzic, Miguel A, ortega Vazquez “Electric Vehicle Battery Swapping Station: Business case and Optimization Model,” IEEE, 2013.

 

8 Praveen Kumar &. Kalyan Dash, “Potential needs for Electric Vehicles, Charging Station Infrastructure and its Challenges in Indian Market,” Research India

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Publications, ISSN 2231-1297, Vol.3, 2013.

 

9 Ian Johnston, “Electric Cars: Mechanics with no specialist training ‘Risk death when tinkering with the vehicles’,” January 2016. Online. Available: http://www.independent.co.uk/lifestyle/motoring/motoring-news/electric-cars-mechanics-with-no-specialist-training-risk-death-when-tinkering-with-the-vehicles-a6816786.html.

 

10 Samir Karnik &. Nitin Sukh, “Electric Vehicles: Challenges & Opportunities in India,” TERI Business Council for Sustainable Development, January 2013.

 

11 Marshall Brain, “Inside an Electric Car,” Online.Available:www.auto.howstuffworks.com/electric-car2.htm.

 

12 T. Kanitkar, “Power Sector Planning in India,” Online.Available:www.researchgate.net/publication/281230318_Power_Sector_Planning_in_India.

 

VII. STATUATORY DECLARATION

“I hereby declare that this submission is my own original work and, to the best of my knowledge, contains no material previously published or written by another person, except where due acknowledgement has been made in the text. I have fully cited and referenced all material that is not original to this work. I am well aware of the fact that in accordance to German law, plagiarism is a punishable offense.”

 

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