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IntroductionMy chosen political engagement activity, was to establish multiple interviews between Dutch teenagers aged 12-19 of different education levels, raising political awareness, and an interview with politically engaged representatives. The political issue I am investigating is: “To what extent Dutch teenagers will be affected by Brexit”. Brexit is a term used for the separation of the United Kingdom from the European Union.  On June 23, 2016 51,9% voted to leave the European Union within the United Kingdom referendum. By leaving the European Union most pro-leave voters hoped to increase their sovereignty, and increase their independence. However, by leaving the European Union a lot of trade barriers will be reestablished; 53% of all exports are exported to European Union countries.My personal interest of this political issue was led by curiosity about political awareness of Dutch teenagers, and a further objective insight about the causes and (personal) effects of Brexit. My curiosity expanded linking liberty to the causes and effects of Brexit, whilst also linking an aloof liberty to the effects of Brexit to Dutch teenagers. As Brexit is said to be primarily focussed on sovereignty, this shows another inter-linkage between Global Politics core subjects and my chosen political engagement activity. The concept of sovereignty explores a state’s independence and its control over territory to govern itself, making a distinction between internal and external sovereignty to further illustrate the causes of Brexit. Concluding, I will also use reverse globalisation as an illustration of the effect of Brexit, and as an illustration of the effect of Brexit on Dutch teenagers.Explanation of engagement activityThe engagement activity entails multiple interviews, and an attempt to raise political awareness of the interviewed teenagers. The first set of conducted interviews was primarily focussed on teenagers, their spending habits and their political awareness (of Brexit). These teenagers were each selected from a different education level, gender and age. The Dutch secondary-school system offers three levels of secondary education: VMBO, HAVO and VWO. As teenagers already finish secondary school at different timelines, I had also decided to incorporate several interviews of a higher level of education: MBO and HBO. It was important for my research to include all three education levels of secondary school and a few of tertiary education levels, as each level teaches another way of thinking. Based on the results of the first set of interviews, I had incorporated teachings about Global Politics, Brexit and any questions they had wished to ask. These interviews and education purposes had helped my research due to a further understanding of how teenagers see politics, and how they spend their money. The main trends received are stated below.QuestionAnswer trendHow do you spend your money?NourishmentsCommunication (phone)ClothingGoing outHow do you receive your money?Parents/guardians allowanceWorking at a part-time jobMonthly compensationIf you are saving money, what are you saving for?Moving outEducationTo what extent are you aware of Brexit?Not aware at allSlightly awareHighly awareIf nourishment is going to be more expensive due to Brexit, would you purchase the same amounts?YesDepends on what nourishmentIf travel expenses are going to increase due to Brexit, would your spending patterns on travelling differentiate?NoMost likely notIf you want to study abroad, will Brexit impact your choice of education?Yes, most likelyDo you think Brexit will threaten your (economic) liberty?Yes, a lotI do not knowThe second set of interviews was conducted with two anonymous politically engaged and oriented individuals. These individuals showed contrasting opinions about Brexit and the effect of Brexit on Dutch teenagers, this assisted me to look at the issue from a broader perspective. Individual A stated that Brexit will cause discrimination, and a lot of barriers for for example EU subsidised projects. Individual A also stated that it will have multiple backwash effects for Dutch teenagers, resulting in a loss of job, education and travel opportunities- whilst Individual B disclosed it to have very few impact. Individual B stated that Brexit was caused by a lack of political awareness and understanding, resulting into a crashed economy for both the EU and Britain. The result of these interviews illustrate the different opinions of cause-and effect, to be incorporated into the political engagement activity.Analysis of political issueTo answer the question “To what extent Dutch teenagers will be affected by Brexit”, multiple subquestion have been set up to further understand and narrow the issue:What are the prime causes and regional effects of Brexit?To what extent will school and job opportunities of Dutch teenagers be affected by Brexit?To what extent will the spending habits of Dutch teenagers be affected by Brexit?1. What are the prime causes and regional effects of Brexit?In 2015, the Tory Party suggested to leave the European Union and a year later a referendum was set up. David Cameron, prime minister of the United Kingdom at the time, was against leaving the EU and tried to gain support. When the polls came out and illustrated a loss, Theresa May emerged as the new prime minister- pro-Brexit. The motive of leaving the EU are ambiguous, but is said to rely on the following causes:Immigration and security: no borders between EU countries result into high levels of immigration and possible entry of terroristsTaxes: EU-taxes are mandatorySovereigntySovereignty can be divided into internal and external sovereignty. Internal sovereignty is about a state’s control to govern itself, and have control over territory and its citizens. The European Union exercises an amount of sovereignty over the UK, and most Britains believe to have too little power over their country. External sovereignty is about a government which exercises control over a country, and is not subordinate to any other government in that country or a foreign sovereign state. Both a lack of external and internal sovereignty are seen as a cause to leave the EU. Their internal sovereignty links to reverse globalisation, as the European Union is a prime example of globalisation; working together to create a smaller world for increased safety and trading. The UK intends to fund local businesses, which elaborates a split from globalisation. However, another cause of Brexit is said to be low political awareness; a lack of political awareness and knowledge about the consequences of Brexit has possibly resulted into illegitimate voting in the referendum.The prime regional effects can be described as huge complications to tariffs and economical disadvantages. As trade will increase in price, products and travelling will become more expensive and difficult. Positive national effects for the UK will include an increase in sovereignty and safety, lower taxes and extra border control.2. To what extent will school and job opportunities of Dutch teenagers be affected by Brexit?The choice of education in the United Kingdom is very broad and has a high education standard; which is why large numbers of students choose to study in the United Kingdom. For a European Union resident, studying abroad brings little complications; as a European Union citizen you are allowed to study in whatever EU-country. Students from Non-EU Countries have two options for choosing a visa:Student Visitor Visa: less than six months with a maximum of two credit hours of employmentStudent Visa: more than six months or more than two credit hours of employmentWhen choosing a student visa, a large amount of complications are added such as; being able to sustain for yourself without working and leave the United Kingdom when you finish your education. This will limit and complicate education choices for (highly) educated Dutch teenagers intending to study abroad. This can be linked back to the first conducted interview: “I believe Brexit will impact my choice of education”, thus threatening the liberty of Dutch teenagers. As liberty is about the freedom of individuals to live a life without the excessive interference from those in power, and with the freedom to flourish and make the most of opportunities. These opportunities will be threatened, however the impact is said to be relative. For Dutch students seeking to study abroad it is of high relevance to raise political awareness, about for example Brexit. Whilst conducting the first interviews and engagements, it was surprising to see such a low awareness of issues for potential students.Jobs reliant on EU-agreements will potentially disappear, however teenagers living in the Netherlands are still mostly reliant on their guardians and only work part time . This shows that there is a limited change in that teenage jobs will be influenced by Brexit, hence having little impact on their economic liberty.3. To what extent will the spending habits of Dutch teenagers be affected by Brexit?The interview demonstrated that a change in spending habits was caused by awareness of economical and financial change. Most teenagers with a low education level described that they had rarely or never heard of Brexit; in contrast with a higher education level. How much understanding a teenager has about a political topic thus depends on the education one receives. This discovery changed the political engagement activity entirely; potential changes in Dutch teenage spending habits due to Brexit were determined by education. Most teenagers stated that spending on nourishment, even when more expensive, would stay close to inelastic. Most teenagers stated that their spending on travel will somewhat alter, as earlier stated “Teenagers will have difficulty travelling, and attaining an education or a job in the UK”. Travelling to the United Kingdom would become a luxury, as it would provide a lot more complications and possibly higher fares for travel. However, most teenagers do not provide for vacation costs themselves, thus having only an impact on the amount of travel, not on their spending habits. Another small change for Dutch teenagers providing their own provider costs, is that they will have to spend more. When travelling through the European Union, all provider costs stay the same but when travelling outside of these borders provider costs will increase in price.EvaluationTo answer the research question “To what extent Dutch teenagers will be affected by Brexit”, the answer depends upon multiple variables. Research and engagement has shown that many teenagers are politically unaware, which comprehends to little change in for example spending habits. However, on an educational level highly educated teenagers have spoken out concerns about Brexit and believe to be affected in the future. Not only educational variables will be affected, work and travelling opportunities will decrease. This will lead to a slightly decreased liberty for teenagers, due to jobs, travel, work and spending. Brexit is expected to be very expensive which will result into higher prices for import and export, and thus experience a lot of backwash effects such as possible reversed globalisation yet increased sovereignty.

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