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In the second millennium BC, Mycenae was a fortified city based between two hills on the Argolid plain of the Peloponnese, Greece. It was one of the most important centers of Greek civilization, a military center which controlled much of southern Greece and parts of southwest Anatolia. The stone architecture of Mycenae is unique in its kind, influenced by various cultures like the Minoans in Crete. The archaeological excavations revealed important architectural remains from the Mycenaean civilization including palaces, citadels, settlements and funerary monuments. The palace structures of mainland Greece share a number of common features. The large palace structure – Megaron, built around a central hall is typical of Mycenaean palaces. The Megaron was used as a center of economy and trade, a throne room for the king, and was also designed for religious ceremonies. While the Megaron was the most important room in the palace, there were also a variety of other rooms, such as living chambers for royals. There were also storerooms and workshops for storage and production of goods for agricultural products and imports.The impressive feature of the Palace of Mycenae was a reinforced wall build around it for the defense purposes. The Mycenaean walls were made of enormous limestone boulders, which have been placed together in an uneven manner. The walls were constructed without using mortar. The wall boulders look unworked, but some may have been slightly sculptured with a hammer. The gaps between boulders were filled in with smaller chunks of limestone. As these boulders were very large, the ancient people thought that it was the Cyclops who raised those gates, as they thought it is impossible for men to move such big rocks. That is why these walls were named Cyclopean Walls.Between walls, there was a Lion Gate, the main entrance that led to the Acropolis. An Acropolis is a citadel or complex built on a high hill. Ancient cities often grew up around a high point, in order that they could easily be defended. Acropolis at Mycenae, like in most cities in ancient Greece, was built in the center a rocky mound or hill, where the people could retreat to if under attack. Although Mycenaean architecture was heavily influenced by Minoans of Crete, ultimately the style of architecture used by the Mycenaeans had multiple differences. Minoan palaces had extensive designs and were formed around a large open courtyard. In contrast, Mycenaean palaces preferred an indoor hall known as a megaron and were constructed with high stone walls and other clearly defensive attributes, signifying the persistent presence of danger. A beehive tomb, also known as a tholos tomb was characteristic of the Mycenaean funerary architecture. It was a corbeled stone chamber rising forty-four feet in diameter, with a small chamber to the right of the entrance. Most of the stone walls were covered by an earthen hill, which added stability to the construction by adding weight. The entrance doorway used to be decorated, and the interior was decorated with bronze plates. The architectural competence of this civilization extended beyond constructions, as they included multiple advancements on the roadways and waterworks system. The famous architectural works of Mycenae are unparalleled in the world and have an enormous influence on the history of Greece.

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