In the development of the international economy, English has become much more essential in local and global communication. Therefore, it has been taught as a second language in numerous colleges and universities worldwide, particularly in Asian countries. Determining an optimal English approach is a challenging issue for most students. In four major skills including reading, listening, speaking and writing, writing skills is one of the most difficult skill in learning and teaching English. In the past, there have been various methodologies of teaching writing skills which led to some transformations of teaching techniques in applying English as a second language (ESL). Nevertheless, recently, some experts have discussed and proposed the progress genre approach that is beneficial for students’ writing skills, especially in the context of Vietnamese universities context, where product approach is utilized popularly in writing English classes. This essay will illustrate two main benefits of the process genre approach in the teaching and learning of written English. Firstly, the process genre approach will be defined and explained briefly as well as the learning of writing by Vietnamese ESL students. Secondly, the essay will provide a detailed evaluation of its two main benefits, which are improving students’ knowledge of the context and increasing learners’ effective writing skills.
Initially, progress genre approach is described as the amalgam and the combination of the process approach and the genre approach to teaching writing skills (Badger & White 2000, p.156). According to Nordin and Mohammad (2017, p.79), the methodology has synthesized the advantages of these approaches for writing classes. They also state that in this approach students could recognize that their writing has placed in a social background and circumstance in order to attain the positive objective. This method is rigidly applied throughout writing class time by educators, which could diminish the hindrances in writing skill without trading off other approaches’ advantages (Rusinovci 2015, p.702). Badger and White (2000, p.157) state that there are six steps in this approach including “preparation, modeling, planning, joint constructing, independent constructing, and revising and editing”. Besides, ESL students normally suffer from a number of obstacles including creating and structuring ideas implying a suitable vocabulary, right grammar and placing ideas as a comprehensive writing (Richard and Renandya 2002 cited in Luu 2011, p.121). As for Vietnamese students, they not only deal with these difficulties but also others while studying writing skills since the product approach is utilized largely in universities (Luu 2011, p.121). Specifically, he illustrates that these students are educated a principal concentration on phrases producing of tests instead of “creating compositions to serve the purpose of a plurality of real readers outside the classroom context”. Therefore, the process genre approach proposes an effective methodology that may improve Vietnamese students’ writing skills and develop concerned knowledge in writing.
One of the significant advantages of the process genre approach is to enhance students’ knowledge by providing possible input from three sources including educators, peers, and examples to learners that are not enough linguistic knowledge. To begin with, Nordin and Mohammad (2017, p.81) propose that the teacher-learner discussion contributes input allowing students realize their limited information, nonsense or insufficiently developed organization in their writing. For instance, in joint constructing step, educators and students work together in “brainstorming, drafting and revising” to afford information and ideas that are useful to their writing in “independent constructing step” (Badger & White 2000, p.159). Secondly, according to Freedman and Reid (cited in Nordin & Mohammad 2017, p.81 ), peer feedback implements actual readers and discussion that drives to revelation in their writing. Keh (1990, p.296) also illustrates associate comments as an input is provided by readers to writers, which often leads to additional modifications. Alternatively, Paulus (1999) and Villamil and Guerrero (1998) (cited in Nordin & Mohammad 2017, p.81) propose that students commit and collect their friends’ feedbacks concerning their text during the writing progress. To be more specific, these feedbacks permit students to revise carefully their writing while evaluating their peers’ judgments. Moreover, White and Arndt (1991) demonstrate that feedback is extremely important to allow students to aware their errors of grammar and vocabulary which are harmful to the meaning of the clauses. Ultimately, according to Flowerdew (2000, p.375), there are numerous sorts of text models relating to various circumstances. Therefore, specific genre models may present to students an appropriate knowledge about the structure and relative vocabularies to produce genre contents (Flowerdew 2000, p.376). He also states that it may be useful for students in higher education in case of providing a real model of context.
The second important benefit of the methodology of process genre approach is to improve students’ writing skills by applying knowledge relating to social issues in emphasizing the social context and magnitude of viewers. First of all, this methodology underlines the significance of the social and cultural situation in writing (Hammond & Derewianka 2001; Hyon, 1996 cited in Luu 2011, p.123). They argue that an objective, a general structure, and features of content are determined by a context; therefore, learners might have a chance to create an effective production allowed by English-language discussion community. This is because language regularly occurs as content that emerges out of the activity of social subjects in specific social circumstances (Cope & Kalantizis 1993, p.36). Similarly, According to Nordin and Mohammad (2017, p. 82), at the beginning of this methodology, students will be notified that writing arises in a context of society and situation to reach a certain objective. Subsequently, students will connect the purpose of the writing and the topic, the relationship between the author and audience, and the technique or arrangement of the text (Nordin & Mohammad 2017; Martin & Rose 2003). Macken and Horarik (cited in Luu 2011) also explain that learners are permitted to view the way to build their texts through the object, audience, and message. In other words, learners have been experienced before turning to next steps of a process with various drafts rather than going straight to a final product. Secondly, this methodology mainly focuses on “the magnitude of the readers and the linguistic conventions” that a bit of composing needs to pursue a specific goal to be effectively acknowledged by its readership (Muncie 2002 cited in Luu 2011, p.123). Hyland (2003, p. 25) also demonstrates that the genre approach emphasizes the essential role “of a recursive procedure of prewriting, drafting, evaluation and revising”. For example, teachers play as an organizer encouraging learners to work in their own writings instead of being taught, and learners draw on their own language knowledge including structure, grammar, and vocabulary in these writings (Nordin & Mohammad, 2017). Thus, through applying the process genre approach, students can participate effectively in their intellectual and advanced fields as well as their expansive social knowledge (Hammond & Derewianka, cited in Luu 2011, p.124).
In conclusion, writing skills is one of the most obstacle skill for ESL students, especially in Vietnamese universities, which regularly apply product approach in writing classes. However, the process genre approach is proposed as an effective methodology that regulates other approaches’ disadvantages in teaching and learning writing English. This essay has explained the concept of this approach and evaluated its benefits including enhancing learners’ accumulation of knowledge of context and improving effective writing skills. Consequently, it is proposed that the process genre approach must be instructed commonly and spread largely in writing ESL classes, particularly Vietnamese universities to improve students’ writing skills. Also, by implying this approach, students will improve their comprehensive enhancement of learners’ language capability in other skills.