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In every person’s life going to the school is
a basic need.  Without attending the
school no one can become educated. For this reason, to reach to school is
important.  In the past our parents had
time to drop to their children in the school or the school location of is
nearby our home so it’s quiet easy to attend the school. But now days the
concept of going to school is totally changed due to the change in working
conditions  of parents, so they did not
have  much time to drop by personally to
school or the school was situated far away from home its not possible for
children go to school by walking.   The
midway was found out from school management and parents to use the school bus
transportation facility.  All the way
through the school transportation was played consistent and durable role in the
life of children from preschool through high school. The many of yellow school
buses are the most noticeable and safest method of school transportation and
make up the biggest form of public transportation in India. Traveling to
school, however, is a complex undertaking, not always defined by icons. Many
more students travel to and from school by use of their own vehicle drive by
grown-up children or youngsters than by school bus. From time to time, many
schools also have their own transportation system to pick up the students from
the nearest destination of their homes.

 

 

Keywords: – Bus,
children, safety, school transportation, risk.

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Introduction

In the
fast and hectic world of today, both Parents as well as School Administration
are very much concerned about the security and safety of their school children
particularly when it comes to their school bus or van journey. It takes a lot
of scheduling and logistics to transport the children to and from the school.

It is a
famous fact that each one of us is a user, a provider, or is affected by school
transportation at some time during our daily travels. The thousands of yellow
school buses are the most visible and safest mode of school transportation and
make up the largest form of public transportation in India. Traveling to
school, however, is a complex undertaking, not always defined by icons.
Nevertheless many more students travel to and from school by personal vehicles
operated by adults or teenagers than by school bus, contributing to traffic
congestion and putting school-age children at greater risk. Teenage drivers
represent the highest safety risk category.

            Since
last few decades, communities across the nation have accommodated substantial
increases in student enrollment. The expected boom in school construction and
renovation and the related planning decisions had implications for travel and
for vehicle emissions.By and large, it is observed and understood that most of
the schools in urban areas have been insisting the parents and guardian of the
students to send their children through the transportation services rendered by
bus operators. Sometimes many schools also have their own transportation system
to pick up the students from the nearest destination of their homes. Off course
such system comprises of buses only.

            Before
a couple of years the school children were arriving at school either by auto
rickshaws or some of them used to come by their parents vehicles. The
management of the schools and the parents of the respective student are
normally meet at a particular interval wherein different issues regarding the
difficulties faced by the students are discussed. The media also frequently try
to focus on the issues relating to the school going children. The fact came to
the notice of parents and the school management that the auto rickshaw drives
deployed for the purpose of transporting the school children used to carry more
number of students in their autos than the permitted capacities. Their only
purpose seemed to somehow carry these children to school without giving a
thought of their safely and security.

            Most of the parents also could not find proper time to
take their children to the school by their own vehicles. The best solution came
out of using the buses for such purpose. Now a day’s parents have accepted to
send their wards to the schools mainly by schools buses. They find theses buses
more secured and reliable. The yellow school bus is a unique vehicle. It has
become an icon of each nation’s and it is used for school transportation.  School buses the safest way of transportation
for children to get to and from school are designed to be safer than passenger
vehicles in avoiding crashes and preventing injury.

Many Studies
show that students are really 50 times more likely to reach in school alive by
taking the bus rather than driving by themselves or with their peers. They are
also 20 times more likely to arrive safely by taking the bus rather than riding
in a private vehicle driven by their parents. There are a number of school bus
safety issues faced by students travelling by school vehicles. Hence, there are
a number of laws in place for ensuring safety. Indian society seems to be
failing on this vital indicator as some of the recent events would suggest. An
international study conducted by the ‘Reuters Foundation’ voted India as the sixth most dangerous country
worldwide for school children after Sudan, Uganda, Congo, Iraq and
Somalia. School bus and child safety are one of the parameters which are used
to measure the dangers to children.

Need of the Study

Every
student deserves reliable and safe transportation to school. The parents are
more sensitive to the security and the convenience of their school going children.
There is always a possibility of passive attitude in the role of the schools as
they may give more importance to educate the student in a better way than
anything else. This may undermine the importance of transport system used for
carrying their students to school and their homes.

Students safety and security are some of the
main issues of school travel and children are now being escorted to a greater
degree than in previous generations”.

Every school shall have a transport committee
to look into the matters pertaining to safe transportation of school children,
transportation fees to be structured area wise, identification of bus stops and
vehicle fitness. The committee shall be headed by Principal of the school and
shall have one PTA representative as well as the Bus Administrator of the
school,  Traffic/Police Inspector of the
respective area, Inspector of motor vehicle/Asst Inspector of  motor vehicle of that area, education
inspector, representative of bus contractor and 
representative of local authority. The committee shall meet every six
months prior to commencement of each semester.

 

 

 

Literature Review

 

Juan
de Oña, Rocío de Oña, Laura Eboli, and Gabriella Mazzullai
propose a technique for assessing the quality of service saw by clients of a bus
travel service. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) approach is utilized to
uncover the in secret dormant viewpoints depicting the service and the
connections between these angles with the Overall Service Quality. Some
intriguing outcomes have been acquired. Three dormant factors were
distinguished speaking to the principle attributes of the service. The in
secret dormant build acquiring the most noteworthy weight on Overall Service
Quality is Service, while Comfort and Personnel have little impact. The travelers’
assessment better clarifying the Overall Service Quality is the assessment made
when travelers have thought about the service.

 

Overseeing
service quality is fundamental to hold consumer loyalty and expand incomes for
any business association. Frequently it is hard to survey service quality
because of absence of quantifiable measures and restricted information. Anjali
Awasthia, Satyaveer S. Chauhan, Hichem Omrani and Ariyo Panahiii
display a cross breed approach in light of SERVQUAL and fluffy TOPSIS for
assessing service quality of urban transportation frameworks. The proposed
approach comprises of three stages. The initial step includes improvement of a
SERVQUAL based poll to gather information for measuring transportation service
quality. The members give etymological appraisals to rate the service quality
criteria and the choices. In step 2, the semantic appraisals are consolidated
through fluffy TOPSIS to produce a general execution score for every option.
The option with the most elevated score is at long last picked. In step 3,
affectability examination is directed to assess the impact of criteria weights
on the basic leadership prepare.

 

Todd
Litmaniii
explores the esteem travel voyagers put on subjective variables, for example,
solace and accommodation, and down to earth approaches to fuse these elements
into transport arranging and venture assessment. Customary assessment hones for
the most part allot a similar time esteem paying little mind to travel
conditions, thus underestimate solace and accommodation impacts. More thorough
investigation of travel service quality has a tendency to grow the scope of
potential travel change alternatives, and legitimize more interests in travel
service quality enhancements. Author analyzes the esteem travelers put on
travel service quality, abridges examine on travel time valuation, investigates
how travel service quality components influence travel time values and travel
ridership, and talks about ramifications of this examination.

 

Gabriela
Beirão and J.A. Sarsfield Cabraliv
exhibit the aftereffects of a subjective investigation of open transport
clients and auto clients so as to get a more profound comprehension of
voyagers’ states of mind towards transport and to investigate view of open
transport service quality. The key discoveries show that keeping in mind the
end goal to build open transport utilization, the service ought to be outlined
in a way that suits the levels of service required by clients and thusly, pull
in potential clients. Moreover, the decision of transport is affected by a few
components, for example, singular attributes and way of life, the kind of
excursion, the apparent service execution of each vehicle mode and situational
factors. This recommends the requirement for division considering travel states
of mind and practices. Approaches which intend to impact auto utilization ought
to be focused at the market sections that are most spurred to change and
willing to decrease recurrence of auto utilize.

 

Research Methodology

A research
method is a systematic plan for conducting research. Sociologists draw
on a variety of both qualitative
and quantitative research
methods, including experiments, survey research, participant observation, and
secondary data. Quantitative methods aim to classify features, count them, and
create statistical models to test hypotheses and explain observations.
Qualitative methods aim for a complete, detailed description of observations,
including the context of events and circumstances.

The researcher has adopted descriptive
research design for the present research purpose. 

Collection of Data The task of data
collection begins after a research problem has been defining and research
design chalk. While deciding about the method of data collection to use for the
study, two types of data should be in mind, i.e. Primary data and secondary
data.

 

1.        
Primary Data: – This the original source of the information where
researcher himself collects all the information directly from the different
people through discussion or by observation. Primary data is not applicable for
cost sheet analysis.

2.     
Secondary Data: – It is the data, which is already present in the
secondary form like   newspaper,
journals, newsletters that are derive by any other person or institute. It was
already exists and it is in processed form.

 

This research paper was based on the
secondary data. However, researcher was collected the secondary data through
Print media like books, magazines, research articles on Google Scholar, Wiley
On-line and such other internet websites, related company literatures and
online reports of various research organizations, etc.

 

Findings and Discussion:

School bus is undoubtedly the most
convenient means of student transportation. But unfortunately, there are a
number of school bus safety issues faced by students travelling by school
vehicles. Hence, there are a number of laws in place for ensuring safety.

The Road and Transport Authority (RTA)
summarized the benefits of these laws as providing comfort, security and safety
for students and parents alike. These benefits include reaching schools on
time, reducing pollution emission resulting from vehicle exhausts and reducing
traffic jams.

National Safety Council

It is calling
for uniform child passenger safety practices across multiple modes of
transportation, including school buses, airplanes and personal vehicles. Among
these recommendations, the Council urges the installation of lap and shoulder
belts on new school buses with proper restraints for children with special
needs, and NSC calls for all children ages 2 and younger to be properly
restrained in their own seat on airplanes using an FAA-approved child restraint
device.

The Council also encourages ambulances, police
vehicles and recreational vehicles to accommodate the unique needs of child
passengers whenever possible, and calls for additional consideration when
transporting children with special needs. 

 

 

 About
the National Safety Council

Founded in 1913 and chartered
by Congress, the National Safety Council is a nonprofit organization whose
mission is to save lives by preventing injuries and deaths at work, in homes
and communities, and on the road through leadership, research, education and
advocacy. NSC advances this mission by partnering with businesses, government
agencies, elected officials and the public in areas where we can make the most
impact – distracted driving, teen driving, workplace safety, prescription drug
overdoses and Safe Communities.

i According to Centres for Disease Control and
Prevention
ii When someone in the vehicle must ride in the front seat, select the oldest
passenger and never place a rear-facing car seat in front of an active air bag.

School  bus safety policy released
by government of Maharashtra.

The school education and sports department,
government of Maharashtra, has issued the school bus policy formulated by a
committee set up by the department on July 23, 2008. The resolution has
over 30 guidelines, which include the setting up of a transport committee in
every school to look into matters pertaining to the safe transportation of its
students, identification of bus stops, vehicle fitness and the requirement of
an annual common standard agreement between the school and the bus contractor.

There are Few
Revised Guidelines as follows –

A. Every school shall have a transport
committee to look into the matters pertaining to safe transportation of school
children, transportation fees to be structured area wise, identification of bus
stops and vehicle fitness. The committee shall be headed by Principal of the
school
and shall have one PTA representative as well as the Bus Administrator of the
school,
Traffic/Police Inspector of the respective area, Inspector of motor
vehicle/Asst Inspector of
motor vehicle of that area, education inspector, representative of bus
contractor and
representative of local authority. The committee shall meet every six months
prior to
commencement of each semester.

B. The Principal of the school shall
be responsible for safe transportation of school children and shall take
appropriate steps for day to day supervision of the manner in which the
transportation of students is carried out to and from the school. Further, the
school shall
enter into a Common Standard Agreement (CSA) with the transporters and shall administer
the School Bus Service through the Bus Administrator.

C. The school authorities shall be
responsible for conducting one day refresher course of First
Aid and fire extinguishing techniques twice a year before the commencement of
semesters.

D. Wherever available, the school
authorities shall provide for space inside the school
premises, in order to ensure safe alighting and boarding of the school children
from the
vehicle.

E. First Aid box with necessary medicines and equipment shall be kept in
the vehicle and the
same shall be checked by the Principal/Authorized person every month. The
attendants
should be provided with a mobile phone by the transport contractor.

F. Every school bus shall carry information of students indicating
his/her blood group and
contact numbers in case of emergency as well as the bus route paper.

G. Two fire extinguishers of ABC type, capacity 5 kg each and bearing
ISI mark, is required to be kept in every school bus, one in the drivers cabin
and the other in the rear, near the
emergency door of the bus.

H. No such seating shall be permitted which can block the emergency door
of the bus.

I. Lady Attendants/ Male attendants-Cleaners must assist children whilst
they are boarding &
alighting from the Buses. They should also check the ID of the Attendant coming
to receive
the child. Children of Primary Schools shall be received at destination stops
by authorized
persons. In case of children of Junior & Middle schools, if the student ID
card has a tick in
the box of attendant and if no attendant is present at the stop, then the child
is to be brought
back to school

Safety Issues related of School Bus Rides and Their Solutions

School buses are among the safest form
of school transportation. The credit of school bus safety
goes to the numerous safety measures connected with them. From our environment
to traffic blocks, school buses tackle a number of issues. They are at service
on every working day of school without disappointing parents or children.

With the help of technology such as Student
Tracking systems, you won’t have to worry about the school transportation
safety any more. The location of each school bus can be traced without fail
using School Bus Tracking systems. Abduction of school buses can thus become a high-risk
proposition for terrorists. Even when on road, school buses remain under
control of the concerned authority. From speed to punctuality, the bus remains
under constant, real-time observation.

School bus, no doubt is the ultimate
solution for safe transportation of children to and from school. There are a
lot of factors that adds to the school bus safety.
From GPS tracking to
RFID tags is
another technology based safety measure than can help you to stop worrying
about the safety of children. Even during busy schedules, parents can easily
confirm the safety of children without much effort, thanks to technology. The
money saved on school bus is not money saved. Instead, it reflects a lack of responsibility.
 

Safety issues of the best ride and its
solutions

There are certain safety measures that
must be considered in order to ensure school bus safety.

1. Waiting for the school bus – Routes of the school
buses are scheduled in such a way that it is possible for students to choose
the most convenient one. Leave at the right time to the bus stop, don’t rush.

Issue – While waiting for the bus, the
student may be alone. They may rush to the school bus stop if they are late and
could be careless while crossing the road.

Solution – RFID tags help
parents to know the exact location of the child. The moment a child enters the
bus, parents are notified. The fear of getting lost is eliminated as parents
will know immediately if there is any danger. Wait quietly at the safest place,
away from the road, for the school bus.

2. Entering the school bus – Entering the school bus
can sometimes be a dangerous task for children. Always stay away from the
danger zone of the bus.

Issue – Children might rush to enter the
school bus, which can cause injury. Waiting too close to the bus is dangerous.

Solution -Children must enter the
school bus without rushing. The driver may not be able to see the children if
they are in the danger zone. Therefore, always maintain a single line of queue
while entering the bus. Use the rail while getting into the bus. Also, get into
the bus only when it stops completely.

3. Seat belts -Nearly 63,000 lives have
been saved between 2008 and 2012 by the usage of seat belts. According to law,
seat belts are a must for car users and helmets for bikers.

Issue – It is quite surprising to know that
most of the school buses do not have seat belts. The seat belts equipped in
school buses do not go over the shoulder and lap as in cars. 

Solution – The school buses with seat belts serve better safety and security. Installation of seat belts must be
made compulsory in every school bus. Seat belts must be installed in such a way
that it is useful for the children rather than hurting them.

4. Behaviour inside the bus – It is natural that
students tend to make noise and fight inside the school bus.

Issue -The noise made by the children might
distract the driver which can result in an accident. Children will always have
a tendency to put their head and hands outside the bus. Eating and drinking
inside the bus can also adversely affect the children. It not only contaminates
the bus floor, but also, causes accidents to students as the food materials
lying on the school bus surface may cause the students to slip on them..

Solution – Children must be taught
how to behave inside the school. They must sit properly in the bus without
moving here and there. Waving hands and putting head out of the window can
result in serious injury. A supervisor can be appointed to take care of
children while inside the bus.

5. Getting out of the bus -More accidents happen by
being hit by a school bus than while riding in a school bus. For instance, a
third-grade student, after getting out of the bus, finds that his important
papers have fallen under the bus. Naturally, he will dash towards the bus to
collect it. Not knowing about the child, the driver will start the bus. Simple
negligence can result in serious injury and even to death.

Issue- Children are unaware about the
dangers that may happen to them if they stand too close to the school bus.
Standing too close to the school bus after getting out of it can cause injury.

Solution – Children must be taught
about the safety tips and rules that they must maintain once they get out of
the bus. They must be well aware about the danger zones around the bus, from
where they should keep themselves away.

 The above 5 is the issues related of safety and
give their solutions.

Conclusion –

 School
bus transportation plays a vital role in the lives of students from pre-school
to high school.  So the safety is the major issue of each and every
school going children.  Each and every
school followed the rules and regulation declared by the government time to time.
In that the school authority as well as parents have take equal responsibility.
Due to time constrain parents cannot droop their children to school , so the
school bus transportation is the easiest and safest mode of travelling used all
over the world . In every country the school bus’s colour yellow is unique. Now
a day’s much new technology and software’s are used for monitoring the
behaviour of school bus drivers and children’s in the school bus. Parents with
a  deep sigh of relief hand over their
children to the bus attendant   Sending
our child on a bus means they  will only
have to walk a short distance before boarding, and then will come home in the
same fashion — bringing further safety to the child and peace of mind to you. “Safety is simple as ABC, Always Be Careful”

 

 

 

 

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