Corruption is common in almost every country. Corruption is a problem that should be avoided and promptly cleared of a country. Furthermore, according to Former Commissioners of the Indonesia Anti-Corruption Commission, Chandra M. Hamzah, corruption is classified into three types. First is multinational corruption. Multinational corruption by the corporation to manipulate the money to the government, usually this corruption is in a third world state. The Second is institutional corruption. This corruption did by the government official and do institutionally so the corrupt ways well prepared and tightly structured. And the last, is individual corruption. It refers to an individual who does the corruption usually they press people’s money.1
If we see from the impact of it, we can say that institutional corruption was given the massive impact. This is because institutional corruption is engaged with International Relations actor, which is stated. In the International world, is almost no country does not commit corruption.2 Many countries in the world commit the corruption inside the government. World Rank Corruption index reported from transparency.org mentioned that Malaysia is the 55th rank of world corruption.3
In 2015, Malaysia was surprised of corruption case by the Malaysia Prime Minister, Dato’Sri Najib Razak. At the time, Najib Razak is holding a position of Prime Minister 6 years. In his second period as Prime Minister, he was reported on been doing corruption of money $ 700 Million USD. This was reported by Wall Street Journal’s because of the unclear transfer to the Najib Razak’s private account. The funds sent to the personal account of Najib Razak was channelled from One Malaysia Development Berhad (1MDB). 1MDB is a Malaysian government-owned company focusing on strategic development projects of energy, real estate, tourism and agribusiness for development of Malaysia. This case is known as 1Malaysia Development Berhad Scandal. Knowing this scandal, Malaysian society, was motivated to hold some rallies and demonstrations. The last rally was the biggest one, demanding Prime Minister Najib Razak to step down.
The protest of Malaysian society to overthrow of Prime Minister was never occured in Malaysia. During 22 years, Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahatir Muhammad has never been demonstrated of negative action such as corruption. In the other way, Mahathir has been contributed of economic and development growth to Malaysia. During his period as Prime Minister, Malaysian economic grows rapidly in the field of infrastructure that has been the icon of Malaysia such as the national automotive brand of Proton, Petronas Twin Towers, and the public transportation that facilitated well the society. In the other hand, infrastructure grows by Najib not yet able to add list of number of icons in Malaysia. Besides that compare the infrastructure grows, Malaysia society also comparing the price of goods. They feel that the price is increase including to the new policy to implement the Goods and Service Tax (GST) 6% each goods and services by the Prime Minister Najib Razak.4
Besides the problem of increase of GST as much as 6%, the general election systems felt not free and fair. The irregularities and unfairness that happened in the electoral election in Malaysia emerged several questions which make Malaysian citizen curious because of his win and urge the transparency of general election in 2013.5 At that time Malaysian news mentioned there are several Pengundi Hantu (Phantom Voter). Phantom Voter is foreign voters who work in Malaysia that given Malaysian Identity Card and have right as the voter to join the general election. Besides the phantom voter, people also can vote for more than one time in the general election. That is caused by the incredible ink as the mark of people who already voted can remove easily and then can vote again because no mark that they have already voted. In addition, during the campaign period, the mainstream media is completely controlled by the government and denied access to the opposition. There can be no real democracy with such a lopsided and biased media environment.6
The differences had been felt by the Malaysian society emerged the fluctuation to demand several things to the government. In 2015, emerged the movement followed by 500.000 Malaysian societies to do the act in public road to demand the step down of Prime Minister.7 This movement was called Bersih 4, and continued by Bersih 5 in 2016. Before, there are Bersih 1, 2, 3 movements in 2007, 2011 and 2012, but then, the first until third movements focus on the good governance and does not relate to the case of Prime Minister.
Bersih movement has the mission to speak out the right of society. This group namely Bersih 2.0. Bersih is a movement initiated by Maria Chin Abdullah as a women’s rights activist and also the initiator of the Bersih movement. Bersih is a movement that members consisting of opposition political leaders, representatives from the civil society,8 and several NGOs.
In the Bersih 1 action, they demanded four immediate reforms to the electoral process: (i) a thorough cleanup of the electoral roll; (ii) the user of indelible ink to prevent multiple voting; (iii) the abolition of postal voting for military and police personnel; (iv) fair access to the mass media for all parties.9 The first Bersih rally was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In this rally was happening the chaotic that make police should involve and be force to squirting gas shedding tears to the demonstrators. As many as 40,000 people of Malaysia in the first rally.10
Secondly is Bersih 2 held in July 2011. Bersih 2 or usually called Walk for Democracy facilitated by the government to do a rally in Merdeka Place, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This rally introduced by Bersih 2 demanded eight points for clean and fair elections: (i) Clean the electoral roll; (ii) Reform postal ballot; (iii) Use indelible ink; (iv) Minimum 21 days campaign period (v) Free and fair access to media; (vi) Strengthen public institutions; (vii) Stop corruption; (viii) Stop dirty politics.11 In the Bersih 2 followed by around 50.000 participants and almost paralyzing the road and the public transportation in Kuala Lumpur so the police should secure the rally was doing. For the first time rally was supported by 32 cities around the world organized by Global Bersih. And finally, after several months, the parliamentary select Committee of General Election for granting the electoral form was announced and established.
Third, Bersih 3 was marred by violence, which the opposition claimed was instigated by the police or by hooligans hired by those in power.12 Bersih 3 also called Duduk Bantah (Sit in), is a protest to the government, according to the follow up of the rally in 2007 and 2011. This movement happened because there is no realization of previous rally and demand for observation of 13th general election by international observers. Whereas, the participants already delivered that they will stop the demonstration after the electoral reform in the general election grant.13
Furthermore, Bersih 4 movement is a rally happened in 2015. This movement based on Wall Street Journal’s reported; the funds were transferred to the personal account of Najib Razak and suspected as the corruption. Malaysian societies with Bersih 4 demand Najib Razak to step down from his position as Prime Minister. This rally was happening two days and followed by more than 200.000 participants inside and outside Malaysia.14
And finally the last rally was Bersih 5. Bersih 2.0 has announced that it will hold the Bersih 5 rally on the 19th of November 2016 at Dataran Merdeka from 10am to 6pm. The meeting points are Dataran Maybank (Bangsar LRT) and Masjid Negara. Participants will walk from these two meeting points to Dataran Merdeka. Bersih 2.0 is currently running a convoy to raise awareness about Bersih 5’s demands for institutional reforms and the severity of the 1MDB crisis. The Bersih 5 Convoy starts on the 1st of October 2016 and will run every weekend until the Bersih 5 rally on the 19th of November 2016. There will be seven convoys nationwide, starting from the North, South, East and West of Peninsula Malaysia and Sabah and Sarawak. The convoy will head towards Kuala Lumpur, Kota Kinabalu and Kuching.15
However, after the Bersih 5 movement until now, PM Najib Razak along with the Government of Malaysia successfully cover up the corruption case. Prime Minister Najib Razak managed to take various ways to secure his position. He kicked his rival Muhyiddin Yassin, who was a Vice Prime Minister of Najib’s government. Muhyiddin Yassin had criticized Najib for the 1MDB scandal, and was replaced by the Minister of Home Affair’s Zahid Hamidi. Not only did he kick Muhyiddin, he also replaced Attorney General Abdul Gani Patail (due to a health reason, according to him) to Mohamed Apandi Ali, who was able to clean up the corruption case that happened to Najib and declared Najib not a suspect of corrupt.16
We can say that from 2015 until 2017, Najib was safe from several suspects because of his track record in the political fields especially in the Malaysian government. But then, Bersih 2.0 was still shouting of Good Governance in order to demand the prosperity of Malaysian society. Bersih 2.0 is a movement came from the civil society that has no relation with the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission or in Bahasa Melayu called Suruhanjaya Pencegah Rasuah Malaysia (SPRM),17 Bersih 2.0 is still convoy and fighting of Good Governance.
In this research, researcher is interested to research and analyze the effort of Bersih 2.0 to impose the Good Governance.