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Charcoal has been used for different purposes throughout history. For example, in the early ages it was used to draw on caves before it was discovered that charcoal could be used a fuel. Some of the early drawings were cave paintings that have been dated back to 1602. After that, charcoal was later used to fuel fire. However, charcoal is used for other purposes as well. It has continued to be fuel for barbecue grills and it is an ingredient in fireworks. Due to charcoal, fireworks were created and a new way to enjoy food and spend time with others became popular. Not only did charcoal spark the growth of both, but it is also plays a role in each. If one thinks, if charcoal was easily available, then the invention of fireworks had to led to the creation of the barbecue grill. How could it not? Charcoal was easily available and humans eventually figured out that cooked meat tasted better. Therefore leading from the discovery of fireworks to the invention of the barbecue grill. It changed the world for the better, after all who does not enjoy sitting out grilling food and spending some down time with friends and family?Some inventions that have occurred were discovered by accident. Which all of them had an impact on the world one way or another. One of these inventions would be fireworks. Fireworks originated in China 2,000 years ago. They were invented by accident by a Chinese cook. He was a Chinese monk named Li Tian and he was responsible for creation of fireworks. Fireworks were first a mixture burned in bamboo tube. The mixture consisted of charcoal, sulphur, and saltpeter. The list of items was very commonly found back in those days. In the 19th century, human waste was used in the saltpeter (Williamson). The Chinese named fireworks “hua yao”, which means “fire chemical.” Fireworks were originally made of 75% saltpeter, 15% charcoal, and 10% sulphur (The Chemistry of Fireworks). In order for the reaction to start, it takes a minimal amount of energy. Bonds are formed between the fuel and oxygen atoms, forming a product which is relatively stable. The larger the surface area, the faster the reaction will be.. The speed of the reaction is controlled by the sulphur and carbon dioxide. This process is known as oxidising. Oxidising is when oxygen agents are involved in the mixture to help the firework burn. After igniting, the electrons are lost to atoms within the oxidation process (Akhavan). Not only does the chemistry of the fireworks affect the explosion, but it also affects the colors and sound. The color of the fireworks depends on the chemicals and mixture. For example, adding strontium makes the color red. Copper makes the color blue, barium makes the color green, sodium makes the color yellow, calcium makes the color orange, and iron makes the color gold. A typical firework produces an explosion that can be heard from two miles. However, the size, weight, and encapsulation are factors that affect the explosion. The energy produced by fireworks is caused by three factors; which are temperature, pressure, and air. The sound waves can be distorted after a certain range. If there are no objects for the sound waves to bounce off when the explosion started, sound is shorter than an explosion with objects near. There are three stages of the firework explosion sound waves. The first stage is the rise time, which is the time between start and impulse. The second stage is the impulse duration, which is the time between impulse and impulse decay. And finally, peak overpressure, which is when the firework reaches its maximum sound pressure (History of Fireworks). In the fourteenth century, the first fireworks were used in war and celebration. Fireworks also contributed to early modern science. This is due to the fact that explosions were a significant element of early modern European life. They were also a great power back in early days. Fireworks fed into new practices in the world of science, which later opened a new culture to non-European practices. However, after the Chinese discovered fireworks, the Italians tried a two step process to attempt launching them in the sky. With the two step process the Italians experimented with older chemicals. The first step in this process was a bamboo tube filled with gunpowder. The second step of making fireworks was putting more gun powder into a tube, only the second time the tube would be more tightly packed with gunpowder. The production of fireworks was simple to maintain because sulfur and charcoal were more commonly found (Terrell).   Every invention comes with its risks and dangers. Fireworks are explosives that if not handled properly, they can become dangerous to the user and anyone around them. For example, at the Persian Wednesday Eve Fireworks, there was an average of fifty eye injuries. Half of the cases were severe injuries and the rest were hospitalized. Most victims that are affected in firework explosions are teenages and young adults. Other cases stated that males are more likely to be involved,which has been consistent throughout many studies. Eye injuries have happened since the late 1960s. These studies were taken place in the United Kingdom. The injuries recorded were from October to November.  Twenty seven percent of the injuries were males under eighteen. From July 2004 to June 2006, seventy six cases were serious eye injuries. 74% of the injuries occurred in October and November. Every since this report came out, over two hundred ninety eight cases of eye injuries have been reported since 2005. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention, eleven percent of injury reports studied were children. Children suffer due to their curiosity getting the best of them. Another reason is because they lack proper knowledge on how to handle fireworks. Another reason would be due to the fact of their reaction time. The final reason for injury would be simple lack of supervision. A young boy put paper caps in his mouth and caused a serious injury and further investigations. This boy put them in mouth and crushed them with his teeth. They burned him and caused severe bleeding. He later developed trismus and swelling. Trismus is also known as lockjaw,which is caused by a spasm in the muscle. The paper caps had triggered when the boy bit down on them. Another study shows that the more involved with fireworks one is then the more likely they are to get an injury. Most injuries happen in the hands, face, and thighs (RPL).   Barbecue has been known throughout all of history. Although it has had different names through history,it has been the same concept;the concept of cooking food over a pit or fire. For example, the word ‘barbecue’ originated with the Caribbean Taino indians,who would smoke or dry meat over a flame (Avery). The first recorded barbecue was recorded in London 1706.  The history of cooking food over fire has been dated back to caveman times. Simply because one of ancestors discovered that holding meat directly over an open flame for an extended period of time “cooked” the meat (Geiling). Which means that as early as caveman times, society had a form or cooking meat. In those days meat was cooked slow over a flame,which would have required many skills and years of experience. Which makes sense due to the fact that not every caveman had the same experience as others. However back in those days, they did not just cook food but also smoked it. Smoking the meat would make it taste it better but also made it last longer. Meats were just simple until flavors were added. Flavors were added by spitting on the meat . The sound of that may sound disgusting but salt and spices were not easily available like they are today,therefore, they would do their best with the resources they had. Barbecuing occurred in different places of the world but it is said to have started in Virginia and later spread to the Carolinas. After barbecue became known in the Appalachian and Tennessee area, the trend of barbecuing became more popular westward. From there it spread to Texas, which is now very known for barbecue (Hollingsworth). Like every event barbecue was made known, but cooking food over fire was nothing new. The social aspect of barbecue was new. As stated before, barbecue can be traced back as early as caveman times. As humans evolved, cooking food evolved as well. Instead of just holding meat over fire for a period of time humans would roast a whole hog over fire for preserving and social interaction (Riches). Guests would get excited to watch the process of the food being made. From the construction of the pit to the removal of the meat from the fire. In colonial times, barbecues were loud and filled with heavy drinkers. At the end of the colonial period, barbecue was commonly known, which lead to the growth of barbecue even more. For example, during the Civil War, the cooking style, which was known as barbecue, gained political significance. Plantation owners not only threw barbecues, but they also allowed slaves to have some. These barbecues were called “pig pickins.” Later on, in the nineteenth century, barbecue was a feature at church. After the nineteenth century the meaning of barbecue changed to cook out (Dove). With barbecue having an impact on changing the views of how people viewed their meal, barbecues happened more and more often. So society had to figure out how to cook food but not over an open fire. The first barbecue grill was simply a pit sixteen inches deep and as long as the cook needed it to be. Not until 1952, a welder by the name George Stephan, who worked at Weber Brothers Metal Works in Mount Prospect, Illinois, made the first ”modern” barbecue grill. He was the first to find a method of cooking meat without burning it or having ash left on the meat (Barbecue Grill). Before the invention of the barbecue grill, people would occasionally cook outside, if not they enjoyed meals they were able to make over a wooden stove. For those who did cook outside, it consisted of burning charcoal in a shallow sheet pan, which often burned the food. Not only did it burn the food but people also had less control over cooking, meaning they could not control the temperature of the food being cooked. It was either undercook or burned. The barbecue grill first started out as a round metal buoy, which was used in lakes to mark rocks. The metal buoy was cut in half, assembled with legs, and had a wire gate over the hollow bottom shell. It also came with a lid, like most grills do nowadays, the lid helped evenly distribute heat over the meat. The importance of this is that meat would no longer be undercooked or overcooked. With the meat being on the grill, it gave the cook power to have control over the meat as well as no longer have food covered in ash, due to the fact the early grill had a wire gate separating the meat from the charcoal (Barbecue). With the invention of the barbecue grill, naturally other inventors tried to improve the grill, much like everything in society today, from improving cell phones and laptops to refrigerators and televisions. Before George Stephan succeeded in creating the barbecue grill, another inventor had tried to accomplish creating a barbecue grill. His name was Ellsworth B.A. Zawyer in 1897. He called his creation a briquette, which was similar to the barbecue grill George had invented, but Zawyer’s failed to sell unlike George’s grill. Zawyer’s briquette was only the top half of George’s grill. It succeeded in sealing the flavor of the meat but it still did not cook the meat all the way. That was not what a cook wanted, the cook wanted the meat to be cooked and to have control over the meat. After the invention of the barbecue grill, in 1960, William G. Wepfer changed the barbecue from running on charcoal to propane, he did this in attempts to get customers to buy more grills,which he was successful in. Customers bought the more of the propane grills. As the popularity of the grill grew, the propane grills became more expensive to buy. In the 1980s, Bill Best added a new feature to the barbecue grill which was a ceramic burner. The ceramic burner  in the meat’s juice and cooked it more evenly. In 1994, George Foreman came up with an idea to reduce fat in meat, which he called the Lean-Fat Reducing Grill. The grill would drain the fat out of the mea,t making the meat healthier for humans to eat. With his grill, he sold over a million. With all the inventions of grills, they were made for chefs and were displayed to the customers to watch their food being prepared. However, in 2000, barbecue grills no longer were just made for chefs. They became available to the public. Since the grills were easy to make, they were affordable to the public (Green). With all the information stated it leads to the statement that fireworks lead to the creation of the barbecue grill. How? Fireworks and the first barbecue have an ingredient in common. That ingredient is charcoal. However one invention was discovered before the other. The discovery of fireworks happened around the seventh century, and the barbecue grill was invented towards the end of the 19th century(Glasspool). Charcoal has been used for different purposes throughout history. For example, in the early ages it was used to draw on caves before it was discovered that charcoal could be used a fuel. Some of the early drawings were cave paintings that have been dated back to 1602 (Gavia). After that, charcoal was later used to fuel fire. The trade of charcoal began as early as World War I. Using charcoal for fuel started during the Bronze and Iron Ages. Charcoal was also an essential component in the iron industry and in the 16th century (Kroeck). During the 16th century it was used for furnaces. Charcoal was not only a common source but it was also was easy to trade (Silje Evjenth). Trade for charcoal was easier than trading wood or other materials,which means it was the easiest source to get in people’s hands, at the time. Charcoal can be made when a volcano erupts and the lava cools and hardens. However charcoal today can now be made. Throughout history, man has tried to control fire. Which means controlling charcoal is a form of controlling fire. The way a person can control charcoal is by either adding or taking away  from what it is being used on. The scientific word for controlling fire is pyrotechnology (Hill). Before the discovery of charcoal, in order for people to create fires, they used bones. However, soon enough the process of making charcoal was discovered. It was discovered about 30,000 years back (Department of Agriculture). Charcoal is mostly pure carbon made by cooking wood in low oxygen. The process for making charcoal takes days. This is due to the fact that water is added in the process. Water is added to the cooked wood, which it takes days for the water to evaporate. The wood that is cooked has to be burned with little oxygen and be stopped before the wood turns to ash. Which means when oxygen, carbon monoxide, water, and other gases are combines it forms the carbon (Goldwyn). Fourth of July is a day when America celebrates its independence from England, and what better way to celebrate than to have a cookout and set off fireworks? Putting meat on the grill, laughing, and enjoying the company of the guests. After a while, when the sun goes down, and either going to go see fireworks or setting off firework that were purchased and having one’s own firework display. As stated before, fireworks were invented during the seventh century, and the barbecue grill was invented at the end of the 19th century. Fireworks were discovered and one of the ingredient in fireworks was charcoal. Charcoal was easy to access, meaning the production of fireworks in the early ages was very productive. Since the production and trade of charcoal was common,  companies could get the ingredients they needed to produce fireworks quickly (Cudina). The same goes with barbecue grills. When the first barbecue was made it required charcoal to fuel the fire. Charcoal was put at the bottom of the buoy,moved around, and added if the fire seemed to go down or was either too much. Much like today, if one still has a barbecue grill that needs charcoal to operate, then one makes sure they put the right amount of charcoal in for the fire to continue and cook the food thoroughly (Department of Agriculture). Which changed how people interact with each other. As the writer stated earlier in the paper, the meaning of barbecue changed throughout history. However, what has not changed is that a cookout has been seen as a form of a social gathering. To this day it still is. One can have a cookout to celebrate the smallest accomplishment to the biggest accomplishment. For example, the writer’s family gets together and has a cookout multiple times over the summer, which could not be possible without the invention of the barbecue grill. This means that in order for Americans to celebrate Fourth of July, then fireworks had to be discovered before the invention of the barbecue grill,which has changed how people socialize during the summer. Some families have a cookout and invite guests over and enjoy food, play games, and swim, with the food coming from the barbecue grill. Before the barbecue grill was invented, humans would rarely cooked outside mostly due to the fact that they did not have the necessary materials. At first cooking outside was just meat slowly cooking food over fire for hours, but now people cook outside and prepare meat to how they feel is best and within a couple of minutes they have food to eat. When the barbecue grills first came out, they were made only for professional chefs. However, having a change in the barbecue, they soon became available to the public. People no longer had to go to restaurants. Not only has the barbecue grill changed the way people cook food, but also how people interact with each other. There are many activities that can happen at a cookout. Which can help bring people together. It can also help families grow closer to each other by sitting and talking about event happening in their lives. With every inventions come accidents. According to Tario and associates, P.S., home fires and thermal burns are two common risks associated with barbecues. On average, 8,800 home fires occur in the United States each year as a result of grilling; almost half of all grilling injuries are caused by thermal burns. Half of all people grill year round but the month of July is the peak for grill fires, followed by May, June, and August. 16,900 people have been sent to the emergency room because of a barbecue accident. 16% of homes catching on fire have been due to having an object that is flammable near the home. 20% of reported grill accidents have been due to the barbecue grill breaking or leaking. Also, if a person has a charcoal grill, then the statistics for injuries goes up, simply because charcoal is more flammable. However, Tario and associates, P.S., states that these statistics can be avoided. One way they can be avoided is by placing grills a safe distance away from any object that can be flammable, including the siding of a home. Another suggestion is when the barbecue grill is lit, it should be placed in an area where it will not interfere with other activities going on around. Another suggestion would be to keep children and pets at least three feet away. Another suggestion that Tario and associates, P.S., suggest is to use long handled grilling tools to keep hands and arms away from the heat and fire, which would help from keeping any type of clothing from catching on fire as well. A final suggestion would be to keep both charcoal and propane grills outside. This may seem simple, but there have been accidents therefore Tario and associates, P.S., wanted to make sure people have the knowledge. Tario and associates, P.S., also have suggestions for specific grills. For charcoal they suggest to use proper charcoal starter fluid, store starter fluid away from the reach of children, and to never add charcoal starter fluid when coal are being ignited. For propane grills they have more suggestions. They are to check the propane tank for leaks, call for help if a person has a leak in the tank, turn off the grill if one smells gas while cooking, and finally to never store propane cylinders inside a building or garage. There are many ways to spend time with family and celebrate accomplishments. For example, having a cookout and enjoying fireworks on the Fourth of July. Not only have humans evolved with technological advancements, but it has also advanced on how food is cooked. At first, it began as just having a piece of meat over fire for a while in order for it to be edible ,and have the ability to preserve food to having seasoned meat and enjoying an afternoon with family and friends. However, none of this would have not been possible if it was not for the invention of the barbecue grill. Before the invention, fireworks had been discovered. These two inventions have nothing in common, correct? Well that is incorrect, charcoal is an ingredient in making fireworks and it is used to fuel barbecue grills. With such inventions being created it not only changed the way people eat but also how people interact and celebrate. How else would people celebrate Fourth of July?

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