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A few numbers
of   major ethical
principles  should be consider  when conducting a research study. These
ethical principles stress on the need of beneficence and do no harm or non-malfeasance.
In research guidelines, these ethical principles mean that as a researcher, you
need to:

 (1)
minimize risk of harm to the participants  

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 (2) obtain informed consent from
potential research participants 

 (3) protect
their anonymity and confidentiality

 (4)
avoid using deceptive practices

 (5) give
participants the right to withdraw from the research

 

1) MINIMISING
THE RISK OF HARM

Research study should  not harm  the participants. The possibility that participants
could be harmed in a discomfort condition, there must be strong justifications
to talks about this issues. Such conditions will require an additional
planning to illustrate how discomfort condition will be handled.

2) OBTAINING INFORMED
CONSENT

Informed consent means that participants
have to understand that they are involved in the research and what
the research requires from them. The  information may include the purpose of the
research, the method being used, the possible outcomes of the research, as well
as associated demands, discomforts, inconveniences and the risks that the
participants may be face.

Another component of informed consent,  the  participants should be volunteers  taking part without have been forced and deceived.

3) PROTECTING ANONYMITY AND CONFIDENTIALITY

Protecting the anonymity and confidentiality of
research participants is practical component in the research ethics. Participants
usually will be able to volunteer in giving information, especially
information of a private or sensitive nature if the researcher agrees to keep such
information in confidence. It is possible that research participants may be
hurt in some way if the data collection methods used are somehow insensitively,
there is perhaps a greater danger that harm can be happened once data has been
collected. This occurs when the data is not treated appropriately, whether in terms
of the storage of data, analysis or during the submission process. An alternatively
is to remove identifiers such as vernacular terms, names, geographical cues or
provide proxies when writing the research.

Therefore, we need to consider the way to overcome
the problems, such as aggregating data in tables and setting the rules to
ensure a minimum number of units are reviewed before data/information can be
presented.

4) AVOIDING DECEPTIVE PRACTICES

In the
first sight, deceptive practices fly in the face of informed
consent. Besides that, how could participants notice that they are taking
part in research and  what  the
research requires of them if they are being deceived?. This is part of
what makes the use of deceptive practices controversial. For this reason, in
most circumstances, research study should be avoid  from any kinds of deceptive practices.

5) PROVIDING THE RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

With
the exception of those instances of covert observation where is not
feasible to let everyone that is being observed know what you are doing,
research participants should always have the right to withdraw from
the research process. Furthermore, participants should have the right to
withdraw at any stage in the research process. When a participant chooses to
withdraw from the research process, they should not be pressured or forced in
any way to try and stop them from withdrawing.

 

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